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青田县花龟亚达伯拉象龟金头闭壳龟黑颈乌龟金钱龟大头乌龟价格怎么养温州市佛州甜甜圈龟辐射陆龟齿缘龟三线闭壳龟真鳄龟蛇颈龟价格怎么养Opposition research反对派调查Digging dirt, digitally电子版发奸擿伏How to ensure that dumb things politicians say get a wide audience怎样保政客们把持的那些不为人知叫座连连One of the houses the Clintons bought when they were “dead broke”WHEN Bruce Braley, a little-known Iowa Democrat, dismissed Senator Charles Grassley as “a farmer from Iowa who never went to law school” (a description that fits a lot of Iowa voters), he may not have expected his remarks to be posted online. He should have. America Rising, a firm that conducts “opposition research” on behalf of Republicans, was delighted to disseminate his gaffe, since Mr Braley is running in Iowa for an open US Senate seat.克林顿夫妇的其中一所房子是在他们山穷水尽时购置的,当时正值来自洛瓦的一名叫做布鲁斯 布拉里的民主党无名小卒称议员查尔斯 格拉斯利是一名从未步入法律院校大门的农民(这种描述对于很多洛瓦选民同样适用),他做梦都不会想到他的言论会在网上曝光,但他早就该有所准备。共和党代表美国崛起公司专门从事反对派的调查活动,它为此欢呼雀跃,奔走呼告,因为布拉里当时正在竞选美国议员席位。The recording, made as Mr Braley was soliciting donations from trial lawyers, has hobbled his campaign.Opposition research is as old as politics itself—Ciceros orations against Catiline, a dodgy candidate for the Roman consulship in 63, were notably well-informed. But some parties are better than others at “oppo”, as it is now called. Democrats outdid Republicans in 2012 thanks partly to the professionalism of American Bridge 21st Century (“Bridge”), which was set up in 2010 and is backed by George Soros, a financier, and others. Bridge prepared dossiers on prominent Republicans and sent staffers to film Republican candidates every move, waiting to pounce on ill-chosen words.录音中,布拉里正向辩护律师寻求资金持,这使他的竞选活动深陷沼泽,反对派调查的发展历史与政治人士本身不相上下,其最早可追溯到时西塞罗与喀提林一场人尽皆知的辩论,喀提林是公元前63年罗马执政官的竞选者,巧舌如簧。但是在“opp”中(如今人们这么称呼他),一些党派真是鹤立鸡群,如“21世纪美国之桥”(“桥”),其内部专业人士在2012年民主党击败共和党中立了大功,2010年它在金融学家乔治索罗斯和其他一些人的持下创立,它建立一些声名显赫的共和党人的档案,派遣成员记录下共和党竞选者的一举一动,并大肆渲染每一个错用的单词。It worked. Bridge circulated a of Todd Akin, a Missouri Republican running for the Senate, using the phrase “legitimate rape”. Mr Akin later said he meant “forcible”, not “legitimate”, but the gaffe probably cost him the election.这招确实奏效,它曾制作了一部密苏里共和党议员候选人都德阿金的视频,视频中他使用了“合情理强奸”一词,后来他说它是指“强制性强奸”不是“合情理”,但这种错误还是造成其落选。O tempora, o mores啊,时代呀!啊,风尚呀!For the presidential campaign, Bridge helped to drive a national conversation about Republican nominee Mitt Romneys past in private equity, allowing Barack Obama to benefit from bare-knuckle capitalist-bashing without having to roll up his own sleeves. Bridge is now gearing up for this years congressional races; it reports raising and spending over 2.6m in the first three months of 2014.在总统选举中,该组织同样推动了一场关于共和党提名人选罗姆尼私募股权的过去,其结果是,奥巴马不费丝毫力气,借了资本家抨击的刀,坐收渔翁之利。如今,美国之桥正在为今年的国会选举整装待发,它的报道量攀升,在2014年的前三个月的开便达到了260万美元。After Mr Romney lost, Republican grandees were determined to build a national rival to Bridge. Matt Rhoades, a former Romney campaign manager, joined Tim Miller and Joe Pounder, former Republican National Committee officials, to lead the way. They took 100,000 from the remnants of a pro-Romney campaign fund and more cash from big donors, and set about hiring researchers and “trackers”.自从罗姆尼失利后,共和党政要便一心想要为美国之桥树立劲敌,在这一点上,罗姆尼阵营前领导者马特罗迪斯和共和党国家委员会成员蒂姆 米勒,琼 鲍德携手开创了先河,他们从持罗姆尼的资金余额中拿出10万美元,又向捐助者大量集资,正着手雇佣研究和记录人员。America Rising hopes that its investigations and ever-expanding store of footage will help Republicans, or at least force Democrats to watch what they say. “Back in the old days, Louisiana Senator Mary Landrieu a Democrat could go down to Louisiana and say one thing about her position on energy, and then go talk to some liberal donors and say another thing,” says Mr Miller.More or less every word a candidate says now lives online somewhere. So groups like Rising and Bridge can build enormous, searchable databases of their opponents statements and systematically search for contradictions.“美国崛起”希望,调查的增加和视频的堆积会助共和党一臂之力或至少也让民主党对其所言小心谨慎,米勒说“在过去,路易斯安那民主党议员玛丽, 可以来到路易斯安那州对于他的立场大放厥词,但在一些自由捐助人士面前却抛射另一套理论。”可以说,在当今这个社会里,竞选人所说的每一个单词在网络上都有迹可循,因此,崛起和桥一类的组织都能建立一套有关他们对手言论的数据库,容量巨大,搜寻便利,可用来系统的搜索与之对立的信息。When they find one, they can alert reporters, or sympathetic activists who can then create ads or web campaigns exploiting the discovery. Both Rising and Bridge are constantly in touch with these other groups, coordinating their attacks. The most valuable employee is no longer a loyalist willing to trail a candidate for months, but a skilled digital researcher.The two oppo groups are aly building cases against possible presidential candidates for 2016.一旦他们捕捉到什么,他们便告知记者或与之同呼吸的激进分子,这些人利用广告或网络活动深入挖掘发现的用处,崛起和桥都和其他组织紧密相连,协调攻击。最有价值的雇员不再是那种心甘情愿跟踪一个竞选者长达几个月的人,而是一个技术精湛的电子调查员。这两个反对党派组织已经在积蓄力量,其目标就是可能于2016年参选的竞选人。Bridge has been digging for dirt on New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, some of it relating to a traffic jam on a bridge that his aides are alleged to have caused to punish a mayor who crossed him. They are also scouring documents related to an investigation of Wisconsin Governor Scott Walkers campaign finances.And of course Bridge and Rising are at war over Hillary Clinton. The Republicans have a dedicated anti-Hillary team, are building a archive of all her appearances, have published an e-Book to pick apart her recent memoir and are posting shareable barbs, such as pictures of two rather grand houses the Clintons bought around the time when Mrs Clinton said they were “dead broke”. Mrs Clintons defenders at Bridge have created an organisation called “Correct the Record” to rebut Republican attacks on the former secretary of state.桥正致力于挖掘新泽新洲州长克里斯 克里斯蒂的负面新闻,其中一些是关于他的助手处罚了一个在交通拥堵中超他车的市长,另一些文件积累是为了调查威斯康辛州州长竞选财政问题。当然,在希拉里克林顿问题上,桥和崛起之间也是硝烟四起,共和党领导的是一个反克林顿集团,他们正在制作所有希拉里抛头露面的视频合辑,并发表了一部电子书在希拉里最近的自传中挑肥拣瘦,锋芒毕露,例如,有两张图是希拉里在其声称山穷水尽时所购置的两套气势恢宏的住房,桥内部希拉里的捍卫者们创立了一个名叫“记录纠错”的组织,反击共和党对这位前国务卿的攻击。Over the past decade oppo has turned from an art into a science, with fewer camera-wielding college students hiding behind trees and more staff staring at screens all day, monitoring livestreamed interviews and campaign events. Both sides dream of upending an opponent with an Akinesque “gotcha”, but the daily reality is more mundane. On Risings website, the self-explanatory headline above one is “Rep. Joe Garcia (D-FL) Picks His Ear And Eats It”.经过十年,反对党调查组织已从一种艺术演变为一种科学,在树后手持相机躲躲闪闪的大学生渐渐淡出了视野,取而代之的是一群目不转睛盯着屏幕的工作人士,审阅各种直播的访谈和竞选活动。两者都梦想放倒对手,欢呼难倒你了,但事实更为平淡乏味,在崛起的网站,一则视频上的导语解释道:共和党琼 加西亚掏掏耳屎并吃了它”译者:张孟夏 译文属译生译世 /201507/384876徐汇区苏卡达象龟地龟刺山龟麝香龟欧洲陆龟日本石龟哈米顿氏龟价格怎么养 临泽县马来闭壳龟长身蛇颈龟东部箱龟棱背泥龟缅甸孔雀龟百色闭壳龟价格怎么养

景东彝族自治县马来食螺龟云南闭壳龟马来西亚巨龟豹斑象龟黄额盒龟价格怎么养Monetary policy货币政策Tight, loose, irrelevant或紧或松没有关系Interest rates do not seem to affect investment as economists assume利率似乎并不像经济学家假设的那样影响投资IT IS Economics 101. If central bankers want to spur economic activity, they cut interest rates. If they want to dampen it, they raise them. The assumption is that, as it becomes cheaper or more expensive for businesses and households to borrow, they will adjust their spending accordingly. But for businesses in America, at least, a newstudy* suggests that the accepted wisdom on monetary policy is broadly (but not entirely) wrong.上过经济学101课程的人都知道:如果中央想刺激经济,那么它会降低利率;而如果它想遏制经济过度膨胀,就会提高利率。我们这样说的前提假设是:当企业家或家庭贷款的成本增加或降低时,他们会相应地调整出。但是一项最新的调查显示,对于企业家们,至少是美国的企业家,这个公认的货币政策原理在经常是错误的(但不完全错误)。Using data stretching back to 1952, the paper concludes that market interest rates, which central banks aim to influence when they set their policy rates, play some role in how much firms invest, but not much. Other factors—most notably how profitable a firm is and how well its shares do—are far more important (see chart). A government that wants to pep up the economy, says S.P. Kothari of the Sloan School of Management, one of the authors, would have more luck with other measures, such as lower taxes or less onerous regulation.使用1952年以来的数据,这篇论文得出这样一个结论:央行希望通过制定利率政策来控制市场利率,这个市场利率对企业投资具有一定影响作用,但作用并不大。而其他因素,尤其是企业获利能力和股票收益情况,则更加显著地影响投资。其中一名来自斯隆管理学院的作者S.P. Kothari说道:如果政府希望刺激经济,应该多采取除货币政策以外的其他措施,比如降低企业税收、减少企业法律义务。Establishing what drives business investment is difficult, not least because it expands and contracts far more dramatically than the economy as a whole. These shifts were particularly manic in the late 1950s (both up and down), mid-1960s (up), and 2000s (down, up, then down again). Overall, investment has been in slight decline since the early 1980s.建立一种刺激企业投资的机制是很困难的,不仅仅是因为它扩张和相互联系的方式远远比经济整体更加复杂。这种波动在这些时段表现得尤为显著:20世纪50年代末(有上涨也有下跌)、60年代中叶(上涨)、2000年代(先涨后跌,然后又涨)。总体来说,从20世纪80年代早期开始,投资增速就开始慢慢减缓了。Having sifted through decades of data, however, the authors conclude that neither volatility in the financial markets nor credit-default swaps, a measure of corporate credit risk that tends to influence the rates firms pay, has much impact. In fact, investment often rises when interest rates go up and volatility increases.然而,通过仔细研究几十年的数据,这篇论文的作者得出这样一个结论:无论是金融市场波动率还是信用违约掉期费率(一个衡量企业信贷风险的指标,通常会影响企业投资所付的利率),对企业投资都无显著冲击。实际上,当利率提高、市场波动增强时,企业投资通常会增加。Investment grows most quickly, though, in response to a surge in profits and drops with bad news. These ups and downs suggest shifts in investment go too far and are often ill-timed. At any rate, they do little good: big cuts can substantially boost profits, but only briefly; big increases in investment slightly decrease profits.虽然投资随着繁荣而快速增加,随着经济下滑而快速减少;但是这种波动却表明,投资的变动波幅太大,并且通常是滞后的。不管利率是高是低,投资的变动对经济刺激作用都很小:大幅增加投资确实可以持续促进盈利,但这个作用很小;而大幅减少投资也只能轻微地降低利润。Companies, Mr Kothari says, tend to dwell too much on recent experience when deciding how much to invest and too little on how changing circumstances may affect future returns. This is particularly true in difficult times. Appealing opportunities may exist, and they may be all the more attractive because of low interest rates. That should matter—but the data suggest it does not.Kothari先生说,企业在决定投资多少时,往往过多地关注于近期的经验,而很少关注利率变动对未来收益会有何影响。在低谷的时候这种现象更加严重。赚大钱的机会是存在的,并且当利率很低时,投资会变得更具吸引力。利率应当是影响投资的--但数据表明事实并非如此。译者:柯维 译文属译生译世 /201410/337460扎囊县拟鳄龟艾氏拟水龟鼋伯格海角陆龟挺胸龟饼干龟缅甸星龟中华草龟价格怎么养 定襄县黄缘盒亚洲巨龟加拉巴哥象龟锯缘龟缅甸陆龟黄头庙龟价格怎么养

平顺县靴脚陆龟咸水泥彩龟安哥洛卡象龟凹甲陆龟红腿象龟价格怎么养 But heres a mystery:但这里有个小谜团:When you press pause on the VCR, the screen doesnt go blank.当你按下录像机的暂停键,屏幕并不是一片空白。Instead, you get a frozen image.相反,你看到的是停止的画面。Remember,you need a changing magnetic signal to create even a still image.记住,你需要改变的磁信号创建静止的视频画面。 If the tape isnt moving, where is this changing signal coming from?如果录像带没有向前播放,这个改变的信号来自哪里?Were used to VCRs doing this, but its actually kind of strange.我们习惯了录像机这样的工作方式,但实际上有点奇怪。It would be like pressing pause on a cassette deck and having the sound remain in your speakers,Pavarotti holding his high C until you press play again.这就像在录音机上按下暂停,声音仍然在你的扬声器中,帕瓦罗蒂的高音C会等你再按播放才开始。VCRs do this trick by moving both the tape, AND the playback heads, which spin rapidly past the tape as it moves through the machine.录像机的这个小秘密是通过带子向前播放及整个机器中滑过带子的放音磁头实现的。Pausing a tape does indeed stop the tape, but it doesnt stop the spinning playback heads.暂停确实使带子停止,但没有停止放音磁头。These continue to swipe past the stationary tape, detecting enough of a magnetic signal for one still frame of .放音磁头继续通过静止的带子,因此侦测到的足够磁信号就产生了静止的视频画面。Modern, hi-fi VCRs automatically mute the sound when they are paused, so you dont get a sustained audio sound as well!现代高保真录像机会在暂停的时候自动将声音静音,这样就不会听到持续的声音!201501/355568尚志市佛州甜甜圈龟辐射陆龟齿缘龟三线闭壳龟真鳄龟蛇颈龟价格怎么养齿缘龟怎么样好养吗



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