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厦门薇格提拉眼皮嘴角上提乳房下垂上提隆鼻价格厦门微格激光去斑多少钱Soviet history苏联旧事Stalin and his cursed cause斯大林和他可憎的事业High five for communism为共产主义击掌Stalins Curse: Battling for Communism in War and Cold War. By Robert Gellately.《斯大林的诅咒》:热冷战期间为共产主义而战斗。罗伯特盖拉特莱著。FIRST and foremost, Stalin was a communist, who believed that the sacred cause justified the most extreme measures: what non-believers would call unparalleled barbarity. This central message in Robert Gellatelys masterly new book is an uncomfortable one for those who believe that Stalinism was an aberration, or a reaction to mistakes made by the West. It is facile to say Stalin was simply a psychopath, that he believed in terror for terrors sake, or that the Red Tsars personality cult replaced ideology. A Leninist to his core, he was conspiratorial, lethal, cynical and utterly convinced of his own rightness.首先,斯大林是一个共产主义者。他相信只要是为了神圣的事业,采取最极端措施也是可以的。而不相信的人称之为空前的暴行。盖拉特莱最新的作品堪称大师之作。文中表达的中心思想会让一些人感到不安。那些人认为斯大林主义不合常规,或者是对西方所犯的错误作出的回应。人们可以轻率地说,斯大林就是一个精神病,他为引起恐慌而信仰恐怖活动。或者说他用对“红色沙皇”的个人狂热崇拜取代意识形态。斯大林是彻头彻尾的列宁主义者,他爱耍阴谋,心狠手辣,生性多疑,却坚信自己事业的正义性。“Stalins Curse” draws mainly on German and Russian archives, plus numerous first-hand accounts, and the authors formidable interpretative skills. Unlike other biographies that have focused on the most sensational episodes in the dictators life, it sets Stalin firmly in the historical context: the rise (and eventual fall) of what the author calls the “Red Empire”.除了运用大量第一手记述资料之外,《斯大林的诅咒》主要参考了德国和俄国档案。书中作者对史料的解读展现出高超的技巧。与其他传记聚焦这个独裁者一生中最轰动的轶事不同,本书牢牢地将斯大林置身于在历史大背景(作者称之为“红色帝国”的崛起,最终失败了)Mr Gellatelys latest work has a good claim to be the best single-volume account of the darkest period in Russian history. It is part of a crop of excellent new accounts of the era. It sits well with Timothy Snyders 2010 book, “Bloodlands” (about mass killings) and Anne Applebaums “Iron Curtain” (which deals with eastern Europe after 1944 and which came out last year). It is also a worthy successor to his “Lenin, Stalin, Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe” (2008), which compared and contrasted the three monsters.要说讲述俄国最黑暗时期的单册历史书描述中最优秀的,盖拉特莱的新书当之无愧。它是记录那个时代的诸多新杰作之一。这本书和蒂莫西 斯奈德2010年的新书《血色土地》(讲述数起大屠杀)和安妮 阿普勒鲍姆“《铁幕》(此书讲述1944年之后的东欧历史,去年出版)相得益彰。此书算得上盖拉特莱的《列宁,斯大林,希特勒:灾难的年代》的出色姊篇。后者比较了三个残酷的领导人。Stalins supposed strategic genius gets short shrift, along with his generalship. Because communist doctrine said all imperialists were equal, Stalin failed to see that the Western powers were not the same as Nazi Germany, and might even be useful allies against it. For all his paranoia and cynicism, the Soviet leader was determinedly friendly to Adolf Hitler, apparently believing that close ties with the Soviet Union made a Nazi attack less likely. But Hitler saw it the other way round: relying on Soviet imports endangered his long-term goal of destroying communism.人类们认为斯大林满腹韬略和将才的天赋,本书作者却不以为然。因为社会主义教条宣称帝国主义者都是一样的。斯大林没能看到西方政权与纳粹德国并非完全相同,甚至与西方政权联盟可能对反纳粹德国最有效。尽管偏执又多疑,这位苏维埃领导人却坚定地对阿道夫希特勒表示友好,显然是认为德国和苏联关系紧密,可以减少纳粹进攻的可能性。但希特勒却从另一方面看待此事:依赖苏联进口威胁了他摧毁社会主义的长远目标。Where Stalin excelled, again and again, was in ruthlessness and attention to detail. He paid minute attention to extending Soviet rule in places conquered at the wars end. He took great interest in details of science and cultural policy, fearing even the faintest breach in communist omniscience. The results might be disastrous: but they were in accordance with communist theory, which was what mattered.斯大林次次出众的是残暴以及对细节的关注。在这场战争尾声,他对苏联统治在被攻克地区的扩张给予了密切关注。他对科学和文化政策的细枝末节十分感兴趣,甚至担心自己的模糊会对社会主义者无所不知的形象造成破坏。其结果可能是灾难性的,但再这些政策都与社会主义理论相符合 ,这是最关键的。Mr Gellately, a professor in Florida, has a deft touch with detail. For all the havoc he wreaked on the countryside, Stalin knew next to nothing about it (he seems to have visited farms only once, in 1928). During their furious conquest of Germany, the Red Army soldiers avenged their homelands suffering in an orgy of destruction. An eyewitness describes their taking “axes to armchairs, sofas, tables and stools, even baby carriages”. Individual stories are recounted with understated sympathy. But the scope of the suffering is inconceivable. An all but forgotten post-war famine in the Soviet Union killed 1m-2m people. Communism probably killed around 25m: roughly the same toll of death and destruction as that wrought by the Nazis.盖拉特莱,是一名佛罗里达的教授,善于挖掘细节。尽管斯大林在农村造成了破坏,本人却几乎毫不知情(貌似他只在1928年参观了农场一次)。在猛攻德国期间,红军通过一系列肆意摧毁来为祖国曾遭受的苦难复仇。一个目击者形容他们“用斧头劈扶手椅,沙发,桌子,凳子甚至婴儿车”。个体的故事只是带着轻描淡写的同情色叙述着。但苦难的波及之广是难以想象的。 一场快被遗忘的苏联战后饥荒饿死了10到20万人。共产主义可能导致了25万人死亡:和纳粹造成的死亡、损失数字大致持平。Aside from the chief villain, Western leaders too come in for quiet but deserved scorn. Both Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman failed to grasp their counterparts malevolence. Winston Churchill made casual deals that consigned millions of people to slavery and torment. The foreigners thought Stalin was a curmudgeonly ally to be coaxed and cajoled. He treated them as enemies to be outwitted. Far from provoking Stalin into unnecessary hostility, the Western powers were not nearly tough enough.除首要的反面人物外,西方领导人也受到虽克制的但应得的蔑视。富兰克林罗斯福和哈里S杜鲁门都没能洞悉与他们的对手斯大林的恶毒。邱吉尔随意就达成了协议:导致数以百万计的人遭受奴役和折磨。这个外国人认为斯大林是个易被哄骗和劝诱的,脾气暴躁的同盟者。他对他们就像瞒骗敌人。西方列强不愿挑起斯大林的不必要敌意,更谈不上对他采取强硬态度。Some of the strongest passages of the book concern Stalins final years: the sharpening contrast between his obsessive paranoia and his analytical powers; the looming anti-Semitism, and the beginnings of a massive new arms build-up. Little of that came to fruition, sparing the world untold new horrors. But what Stalin did achieve was quite bad enough.书中涉及斯大林最后日子的段落是高潮:他的强迫性偏执和超强的分析能力形成鲜明对比;骨子里的反亲犹太人主义,一种大规模新式军备逐步增强的开端。这些只有少部分实现了,使世界免于数不清的新恐慌。但已实现了的那些,却是够坏的了。 /201405/297470厦门薇格医疗门诊部开双眼皮多少钱 Dear Annie: My unmarried 30-year-old daughter has a drinking and behavioral problem that has escalated over the past year. 亲爱Annie:我还未婚的30岁女儿养成了饮酒的坏习惯,这么多年都没有得到改善。We have encouraged Terrie to get alcohol counseling or attend A.A. 我们鼓励过Terrie去戒毒所或参加戒酒互助会。She tried it once and quit. I believe she is bipolar, but mental health counselors will not treat her until she quits drinking. 她曾经尝试过,但还是放弃了。我觉得她处于两个极端,但是心理健康咨询师说直到她把酒瘾戒掉才能给她心理上的治疗。After her last outburst, I sent her a text message and said we could no longer have a relationship unless she gets help. 在她上次发病后,我写给她一张便条,上面写着除非她接受治疗,要不我们就断绝关系。Shortly after, she left town and moved to Florida with a friend who also drinks. 不久后,她离开了,和一个同样酗酒的朋友搬去了佛罗里达州.Should I keep the lines of communication open, or will my ultimatum help her reach bottom so she can start climbing back up? 我应该与她保持沟通,或者再最后忍耐一下,也许这样她就可以回来了?I tried Al-Anon, but the members only offer support and friendship to each other, which is nice, but it doesnt change my daughter. 我去过匿名戒酒者协会,但那儿的成员都是彼此提供持与帮助,那儿很好,不过却没能改变我女儿。— Concerned Mom Dear Concerned: Al-Anon is not intended to change the alcoholics behavior, only your response to it. 一位母亲提到:匿名戒酒者协会不是在有意改变酗酒者的行为,而要改变你们的反应。Choosing not to stay in touch would be for your mental health, not hers. 选择不去交流,可能对你的精神健康有益,而不对她有益。No one can ;fix; Terrie until she admits she has a problem, and she doesnt seem y. 没人能修正Terrie的人生,除非她能正视自己的问题,而且现在看来,她好像还没有准备好。Many who are bipolar self-medicate with alcohol and drugs, and there are treatment programs that address both disorders. 世界上有很多极端地使用酒精或毒品的人,而且现在也有许多针对这两种神经错乱的治疗方案。If Terrie wants help, she should contact a university medical center department of psychiatry for a referral. 如果Terrie需要帮助,我建议她联系大学医疗中心的心理科。201307/248935Food names食物名称Stressed are the cheesemakers乳酪制造商鸭梨山大Europeans want their food names back. Americans are peeved欧洲人想要回他们的食品名称.这让老美们很不开心。IN 1925 Ron Buholzers family leftSwitzerlandand settled in lush, green, ruralWisconsin. Here, like so many Wisconsinites, his family started to make cheese. Since then four generations of cheesemakers have worked in the family firm. Their most popular product is feta, a crumbly cheese that goes well in Greek salads. Mr Buholzer worries that he may soon be banned from selling it, because the European Union is trying to “claw back” food names that Americans consider generic but which Europeans believe should only apply to products made in specific bits of their continent. That includes feta, Parmesan and maybe even bologna.1925年,Ron Buholzer家族离开了瑞士定居在繁华、富饶的威斯康辛乡间。在这儿,他的家族和很多威斯康辛本地人一样生产乳酪。从那时起,四代乳酪制造商工作在家族企业里。他们最受欢迎的产品是羊乳酪,这是一种脆蹦的乳酪,混着希腊沙拉味道可口。Buholzer担心他可能很快就要被责令不准卖这种商品了,因为欧盟正试图“弥补性回收”食品名称,这些名称在美国人看来算是同类的商品,而在欧洲人看来则应该只应用于专为部分欧洲大陆生产的产品上。这就包括了羊奶酪,帕尔马奶酪可能甚至包括大腊肠。Aly Mr Buholzer is barred from exporting his feta toSouth Koreaif he calls it “feta”. Also, any new feta products sold in Canada that are not from Greece will soon have to be called “like” or in the “style” of feta—and not use Greek symbols. The EU is demanding protection for 145 food names, including feta, asiago, Gorgonzola,munsterand fontina.Buholzer已经不被允许以“羊奶酪”命名的产品出口到南韩。同样,任何售往加拿大的心羊奶酪产品,只要不是从希腊出口的,立马改名为“类似”或“羊奶酪风格”—并且不准用希腊商标。欧盟正要求保护145种食品名称,其中包括羊奶酪,艾斯阿格芝士,戈尔根朱勒干酪,明斯特干酪以及意大利果仁味羊奶干酪。American cheesemakers are unwilling to accept this as a feta accompli. On the contrary, they are preparing for a food fight. A group has sprung up to fight the European threat: the Consortium for Common Food Names. Negotiations over the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, a proposed free-trade deal between the EU andAmerica, may stumble over the issue. The EU, meanwhile, is leaning on governments everywhere to stamp on foodmakers who purloin European names.美国乳酪制造商不想接受这种事实。相反的是,他们正准备着进行一场食品抗争。他们建立了一个小组来对抗欧盟的威胁:公共食品名称联盟。在跨大西洋贸易及投资伙伴协定框架下进行谈判,欧盟和美国已达成的自由贸易协定可能会在这件事上磕磕碰碰。同时,欧盟正依靠政府部门去禁止偷窃欧洲名称的食品制造商们。Americans are unimpressed. They see all this as an attempt to erect trade barriers and raise prices by reclaiming words that have long since passed into general use. Many members of Congress have urged Barack Obamas administration to resist the Europeans demands. Some will use this as an excuse not to ratify a trade deal unless the EU gives way.美国人民很不开心。他们认为这种行为属于建立贸易壁垒并且利用回收这些早已广泛使用很久的名称趁机提高价格。很多国会成员们已经敦促奥巴马政府拒绝欧洲的提议。一些人希望借助此事为借口禁止一些贸易协定的审批除非欧盟在这件事上让步。Americadoes offer legal protection for foods from geographic regions under trademark law. For example, Parmigiano Reggiano cannot be called that unless it really comes from the right parts ofItaly. Likewise, Americans may call fizzy wine fromCalifornia“champagne”, but that is not what it says on the bottle. There is no easy way to determine which names deserve protection. Are French fries safe? Or Italian dressing? Or even that symbol of American pride, the hamburger?在商标法里,美国确实为地理区域食品名称提供了法律保护。例如,除非帕尔玛干酪真正来自意大利的帕尔玛,否则不能任何叫做这个名字。同样的,美国人们也会称加州的泡沫酒为“香槟”,但是在包装瓶上没这么写。决定哪些名字应该受到保护绝不是件简单事。薯条这个名字很安全吗?意大利调味料呢?甚至是美国人民骄傲的象征,汉堡呢? /201407/314862厦门薇格医疗美容去痘印多少钱

厦门祛斑费用The chills, the sweats…fevers not only feel terrible; they also make the body work hard! For every two degrees Fahrenheit your temperature goes up, your heart rate increases ten percent. Why does the body go through such laborious misery when were sick?畏寒,出汗...发烧不仅让人感觉难受,还让身体负担更重!体温每增高2华氏摄氏度,心率就提高百分之十。为什么生病时,身体会经历这样痛苦的折磨呢?The good news is that there is a method to fevers madness. Fever helps the body fight infection by revving up the immune system. Turn up the heat in the body, and many body processes speed up, including the production of white blood cells and how fast they find infectious bacteria and viruses. Once there, white blood cells called macrophages gobble up infectious organisms.但令人欣慰的是,发烧是一种对付感染的好方法。发烧通过加速免疫系统来帮助身体抵抗感染。体温上升,许多机体运作加速,包括促进白细胞的产生以及快速发现感染性细菌或病毒。一但发烧,一种称作“巨噬细胞”的白细胞便会吞噬病原体。Although higher body temperatures might kill some bacteria or viruses, fevers help us most by boosting the bodys own immune response.尽管高温会杀死一些细菌和病毒,但发烧对身体最大的益处在于提高人体自身的免疫反应。Fevers are such valuable responses to infection that creatures all along the evolutionary scale get them. That includes friendly neighborhood dogs and cats, as well as critters you might not expect, such as insects and lizards.发烧是对感染的一种反应,它是如此的宝贵,进化史上所有生物均具有这一特点。这些生物包括与人类友好的邻居——猫和,以及其它你想不到的动物,例如昆虫和蜥蜴。In a lab, after a lizard is injected with live bacteria, it will creep under a heat lamp in order to raise its body temperature. Thats not so different from piling on the blankets when youve got the feverish chills!在实验室中蜥蜴被注射活细菌之后,为了提高身体的温度它会在热灯下爬行。这与你发烧打寒颤时拉毛毯来盖无本质差异。Because fever revs up our immune response, reducing fever with medication could make the infection last an extra day. But when youre feeling miserable, the tradeoffs probably worth it!因为发烧加速我们的免疫反应,所以用药物退烧会让感染多持续一天。不过当你感觉痛苦,也许用药退烧也是值得的。原文译文属!201304/237464厦门祛痘医院 厦门激光祛斑哪里最好

龙海市副乳切除多少钱Business商业报道Tablet computers平板电脑Overdose太多啦The market for tablets has aly split into two平板市场已经一分为二了NOKIA is going out with a flourish.诺基亚带着一个惊人消息出现了。In Abu Dhabi on October 22nd, at its last launch party before the sale of its mobile-phone division to Microsoft, the Finnish company showed off its first tablet.10月22日,在阿布扎比,在诺基亚将其移动业务卖给微软之前的最后一次发布会上,这个芬兰公司发布了其首款平板。Like Nokias smartphones, the Lumia 2520 uses a version of the American firms Windows operating system.和诺基亚智能机一样,Lumia 2520使用了美国公司的Windows操作系统。New models of Microsofts own Surface tablets, announced last month, went on sale the same day.微软上个月发布的自己研发的新款Surface平板在同一天发售。Microsoft and Nokia are aiming at the dearer end of the tablet market, which is dominated by Apples iPad.微软和诺基亚力都争平板市场高端客户群,而这个市场目前是由苹果的iPad主导的。Microsoft has aly had a false start. In July it wrote off 900m to reflect poor sales of the Surface RT.微软已经有了一个错误的开端。六月,微软亏损了9亿美元明了其Surface RT的惨淡销售。As if to remind Microsoft of what it is up against, a few hours after Nokias launch Apple unveiled the iPad Air, which is thinner and lighter than its predecessors, and an upgraded iPad mini.好像是为了提醒微软它遇到了什么问题,诺基亚发布平板后几小时,苹果就发布了比旧机型更薄更轻的iPad Air,以及升级的iPad mini。Just as remarkable as the iPads success, however, is the proliferation of cheaper imitators.和iPad的成功一样显著的是廉价的仿冒品的激增。A mere three-and-a-half years after the first iPad was sold, the market for tablets aly has a premium and a budget end, like that for cars.首款iPad推出后短短三年,就像汽车市场一样,平板市场也已经出现了质优的和价优的分化。The cheap models, most of which have seven- or eight-inch screens against the standard iPads ten, use Googles Android operating system and are sold for as little as 100 or less.廉价机型,大多数是7英寸或8英寸屏幕而非苹果标准10英寸的屏幕,使用谷歌的安卓系统,售价只有100美元左右。The least expensive iPad Air and the Lumia 2520 will be sold for 499 and Microsofts Surface 2 for 449.iPad Air和Lumia 2520最低售价为499美元,微软Surface 2最少为449美元。In the second quarter of this year, according to IHS, a research firm, 43.6m tablets were shipped.根据调查公司IHS公司的报告,今年第二季度,已有4360万台平板上市。Of those, 14.6m were iPads, which use Apples operating system for mobile devices, iOS.其中,1460万台是使用苹果移动设备操作系统ios的iPad。Only 1.7m ran Windows.只有170万台使用Windows系统。Almost all the others were Android machines.剩下几乎都是使用Android系统的设备。Some bear well-known brands.有一些是著名的品牌。South Koreas Samsung had the biggest single share.韩国的三星独家占有最大市场份额。Amazon, a giant online retailer whose tablets use a customised version of Android, Taiwans Acer and ASUS, and Chinas Lenovo also had fair slices.使用定制安卓系统的网上零售商巨头亚马逊的平板,台湾的宏基和华硕,还有中国的联想也拥有相同的份额。But 13.9m out of the 27.2m Android tablets shipped were made by dozens upon dozens of others.但是上市的2720万台安卓系统的平板中,有1390万台是由许多制造商制造的。Entry at the bottom is as easy as it is hard at the top, with margins that reflect perfect competition rather than near-monopoly.利润显示了当前完全竞争而非近乎垄断的状态,到达市场的顶端是困难的从市场底端进入市场是很容易的。Rhoda Alexander of IHS reckons that smaller manufacturers will feel really flush if they scrape a margin of 4 a unit.公司IHS的Rhoda Alexander认为如果小型制造商勉强获得每个4美元的利润会觉得很有钱。Some sellers of cheap Androids in any case expect to make their money in other ways.一些廉价的安卓系统的平板不管怎么样都希望通过其他途径来获利。Amazon makes little if anything from its tablets.如果一定要说它获利了的话,亚马逊在其平板上获利很少。Its aim is to sell stuff online.它的目标是推销线上产品。The same will surely apply to Tesco, Britains largest supermarket chain, which recently started selling its own tablet, the Hudl, for £119 (193)—or less if you use loyalty points.这个方式当然也适用于英国最大连锁超市乐购,乐购最近开始销售其自主开发的平板Hudl,这款平板售价为119英镑-如果你使用忠诚积分的话更便宜。The Hudl is preloaded with Tescos shopping apps and with blinkbox, its pay-as-you-go film-and-TV service.它内置了乐购的购物软件以及其现购现付电影电视务blinkbox。Ben Wood of CCS Insight, another research firm, reckons that North America aly has two tablets for every five people.另一家调查公司CCS Insight的Ben Wood认为在北美每五个人拥有两台平板。Cheap devices, he thinks, are often bought for children who covet a parents iPad.他认为廉价的设备通常都是买来给觊觎父母的iPad的孩子的。The two-car family took decades to arrive.一家两辆车的时代经历了数十年才来临。The two-tablet family has taken three years.一个家庭两台平板的时代只用了三年的时间就实现了。 /201310/262455 厦门胎记医院排行榜厦门薇格门诊部脱毛手术多少钱

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