明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年08月17日 15:41:34
Sweat it out: could your sportswear be toxic?运动后,你的运动竟是有毒的?It might be hard to imagine that exercise could be harming your health. It turns out that even while you are doing something healthy, what you are wearing while doing it could be cause for concern. Public health advocates, including Greenpeace and European regulatory bodies that oversee chemical safety, are becoming increasingly concerned by evidence that shows a possible link between sportswear and health issues such as cancer, obesity and developmental disabilities. While toxic chemicals are a longstanding issue in various types of apparel, sportswear presents a particular problem because sweat and friction can prompt more rapid absorption of toxins into the body.也许对于你来说很难以想象,能会损伤你的身体。然而研究明当你正在进行锻炼的时候,你的穿着可能会引发上述的担心。包括绿色和平组织和欧洲化学安全性监管机构监管在内的公共健康倡导者,越来越关注据显示的运动和健康问题如癌症、肥胖和发育问题之间的联系。而有毒的化学物质则是长期存在于不同装中的一个问题,运动也因为因为运动的汗水和擦可以促进更快速的吸收到体内毒素引发了一个新的问题。Greenpeace released a report last month cataloguing how apparel companies are failing to regulate the chemicals in the sportswear they manufacture.The Greenpeace report comes after a slew of research over the past few years highlighting the potential health risks of various chemicals used in sportswear- primarily dyes, solvents, and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), which make items water, grease and stain-proof.上个月绿色和平组织发布的一份报告中,登记了装公司未能调节他们制造的运动化学品含量(的问题)。绿色和平组织的报告是基于过去的几年中的一系列的研究的,突出强调了各种化学品在用做运动主要染料、溶剂、和用于润滑和防锈的氟化合物(PFCs)的使用中带来的潜在健康风险。In Greenpeace’s report it promoted Adidas from “greenwasher” to “trendsetter” and bestowed the less complimentary “greenwasher” title on Nike. Following earlier findings by Greenpeace about Adidas’s previous poor performance, the company sat down with Greenpeace and committed to eliminating hazardous chemicals by 2020 and being 99% PFC-free by 2017. Manfred Santen, toxics campaigner for Greenpeace International in Germany, called this “a big step in the right direction”. Nike spokesperson Greg Rossiter responded to the report by saying their own greenwasher title is undeserved. He said that the company phased out long-chain PFCs at the beginning of this year, requiring that all materials meet the standards laid out in Nike’s Restricted Substances List.绿色和平组织的报告推动了阿迪达斯从“漂绿者”成为了“潮人”的进程,却未授予尼克“漂绿者”的称号。绿色和平组织早期研究发现,阿迪达斯的前期表现不佳。该公司与绿色组织的谈判中,同意致力于到2020年止减少有害化学物质的使用,到2017年止99%不含氟化合物。德国国际绿色和平组织污染防治项目主任曼弗雷德参天,称这是“一个大方向正确的步骤”。耐克发言人格雷戈罗斯特回应说自己命名为漂绿者的的标题不当。他说,在今年年初公司淘汰长链氟化合物,要求所有材质均符合耐克的受限物质清单的标准。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,不得转载。 /201507/379967

Even if you#39;re not superstitious,it#39;s hard not to ascribe other people#39;s good fortune to luck. Everyone knows that one person who seems to always be in the right place at the right time, getting more than their fair share of promotions, raises, and desks nearthe window. So how do these folks do it? 纵然你不迷信,还是很容易把别人的成功归咎于幸运。我们知道,有的人总是能够做好所有的事情,在升职、加薪方面比一般人得到更多的机会,还有得到靠近窗口的办公桌。那么这些人是如何做到的呢?1.Observe their surroundings.敏锐观察。One of the ironies of working life is that the hardest working people usually havetheir heads down and their eyes on their own page. This is admirable, but ifyou allow yourself to develop tunnel vision, you won#39;t notice opportunities when they present themselves.勤奋工作的人被讽刺说只会埋头于自己的那点工作上。他们是令人钦佩的,但是如果你仍然带有一孔之见,当机会来临的时候,你会错过它们。In one experiment designed by Richard Wiseman, a former magician and psychologist who studies luck, he asked people to self identify themselves as lucky or unlucky. Then he gave his test subjects a newspaper. ;Countthe number of photographs inside,; he told them.曾做过魔术师并且专门研究幸运的心理学家,理查德·威斯曼(RichardWiseman)设计了一个实验,在实验中,他让实验者把自己标识为幸运和不幸运两种。然后给他们测试用的报纸。“数一下里面有多少图片。”他告诉实验者。On average, the unlucky people took 2 minutes tocount them all. The lucky people? Seconds.认为自己不幸运的人平均用了2分钟的时间数出了所有图片。那么幸运的人呢?只有2秒钟。The lucky people noticed the giant message in the newspaper.The unlucky people missed it. The;lucky; people weren#39;t lucky. They were just more observant.幸运的人注意到了报纸上的巨大信息量,而不幸运的人却错过了它们。幸运的人不是幸运,他们只不过是观察力敏锐而已。2.Are likeable.平易近人。There are two equally qualified candidates with similar skills, work histories, andsalary requirements. Who gets the job? The one the hiring manager likes more.两个具有同样资历的应聘者,他们有类似的技能、相似的工作经历和工资要求。谁可以得到这份工作?是招聘者喜欢的那一个。This isn#39;t as unfair as it sounds. When evaluating candidates for a position, managers are looking first for the person who can do the best job and secondfor the person who#39;ll be the easiest to work alongside. In today#39;s team-basedwork environment, anything else would be foolish.这听上去好像不是很公平。在对员工进行职位评估的时候,首先管理者评估的是谁可以更好的完成工作,然后再评估工作中谁更容易相处。在今天这个团队合作的工作环境下,除了这些,其它的都不重要。Being likeable isn#39;t about being the person with best seats at the stadium. It#39;s about listening more than you speak, looking for opportunities to help others instead of solely asking for favors for your career.成为人缘好的人并不是说能在体育场拥有最好的座位,而是少说话、多倾听,寻找机会去帮助他人,而非一味的向别人索取工作上的帮助。3. Break bad habits of thought.心态积极。Thinking about good things might not cause them to appear, but dwelling on the negative will definitely close you off from seeing opportunities when they arise.Practice redirecting your thoughts when you catch yourself thinking negatively,and you#39;ll cultivate a head space that allows you to see the good stuff when it#39;s there. Do this long enough, and it#39;ll be easier to create your own opportunities for growth and advancement, and get other higher-ups to endors eyour plans.如果你去想好的事情,或许不会出现,但是如果你一直沉溺于消极的情绪之中,当机会来临的时候,这些会蒙蔽你的双眼。当发现消极情绪的时候,学会改变自己的想法,建立起一个安全空间。当好运来临的时候,你就可以注意到。长时间做这件事情,你会很容易创造出自己成长和进步的机会,并得到上级领导的赞许。未经授权! /201503/366786

A:How do I keep from going in the woods?A:怎么防止进入树林呢?B:Hey, Barney---put some more ”port·a·johns” along the edge of the woods.B:嗨,班尼,把更多的沿挡放在树林边缘。 /201505/373712

  A great name is the beginning of a great brand.It should be memorable and create a certain feeling when heard.Here#39;s a quick how-to on creating one and making sure it#39;s not aly used。不同凡响的名称是伟大品牌诞生的开始。在人们听到你公司名称的时候应该容易记住,带来一定的冲击感。Here#39;s How:步骤如下:1.Brainstorm.Think about how you want people to feel when they hear the name.Write down the words on paper and then categorize them by primary meaning。头脑风暴。考虑一下你想要人们在听到你公司名称的时候怎么想。在纸上记下这些词汇,然后按其原意进行分类。2.Relate.Think about related words and phrases that evoke the feelings you want.Hit the thesaurus and find all the synonyms for your words and phrases。相关性。想一想能够唤起你想要的感觉的相关词汇。去查词典,并找出你想要的词汇和短语的所有的同义词。3.Relate more.Find out the Greek and Latin translations of your words.Figure out what colors, gemstones, plants, animals, etc., relate to your words。更多的同义词。找出所有词汇的希腊和拉丁语翻译。找出和你想要的词汇相关的颜色,宝石,植物,动物等。4.Experiment.Start playing with combinations of your various words and partial words.Don#39;t be judgmental now - just make a list。实验。开始将不同的词组合起来。现在只是做个清单,先不要评判。5.Reflect.Review your list and just give some thought to each name.How does it make you feel when you hear it?仔细考虑。重新审查你的清单,想一想每个名字,当你看到每个名字的时候感觉如何?6.Communicate.Go over the list with someone you trust.Have them tell you how each name makes them feel, and how memorable they think it is。交流。和你信任的某人共同探讨这份清单。让他们告诉你对每个名字的感觉,还有他们认为可记忆度怎么样。7.Prioritize.Throw out any that just don#39;t fit and make a prioritized list of the rest。挑选。剔除那些不符合的,然后将剩下的名字排列出先后顺序。8.Check trademarks.Make sure no one is using that name in your line of business.You may be able to use the name in a completely different business, but be aware that it may create confusion for both you and them。检查商标。要确保在你的行业内没有人用这个名字。你可以在不同的领域采用相同的名称,但是要注意会引起你和别人的混淆。9.Check domain names.You want to make sure that an appropriate domain name is available.You want YourCompanyName.com, of course.If that#39;s not available, you may want to reconsider。检查域名。要确保一个合适的域名是否可用。你会想要“公司名词.com”这样的域名。但是如果这个不可用的话,也可以考虑其他的域名。10.Search the internet.Even if someone doesn#39;t have the domain, you still want to see what else is out there that has the same name.That doesn#39;t mean you don#39;t use it if you find something, but you need to know。在网络上搜索。即使别人没有占用该域名,你也要查出用同一个域名搜索会出来什么样的结果。但是这并不是说,如果你搜出了一些结果你就不能用该域名,仅仅是你要做到心中有数罢了。11.Check company names.If you#39;re planning to incorporate, check with the Secretary of State of the state you#39;re planning to incorporate in。检查公司名称。如果你计划创办公司,要先咨询公司所在地的州部长。12.Check assumed names.For sole proprietors, check for local assumed names (also known as DBA).In the U.S., you check this with the County Clerk。检查营业代理名。对个体户来说,需要核查以什么样的公司名义营业。在美国,可以向郡政府咨询这一事宜。13.Stake your claim! Register your assumed name or file your incorporation papers right away.Also, start using either TM (trademark) or SM (service mark).You do NOT have to register them to use them。坚持你的梦想。马上注册你的营业名称或者将公司资料备档。另外,开始使用商标或务商标。不用等到注册后才能使用。14.Get the domain(s).Find an inexpensive registrar and register your domain.You shouldn#39;t be paying more than a year for each, and at that, it pays to prevent poachers。获取域名。找一家便宜的注册公司,注册你的域名。你每年付的该项费用应该不超过10美元,而这笔费的用途是为了防止入侵者。15.Protect your brand.A U.S.trademark or service mark costs 5.It#39;s a drop in the bucket compared to trying to defend it later.It#39;s not really necessary, though, for a small local business。保护你的商标。一个美国商标或务商标要花325美元。和以后需要花费的维护费用相比,这简直是杯水车薪。但是对小地方的小企业来说,这笔钱其实是没必要花的。 /201507/386079

  1. Tomato Ketchup1.番茄酱Everyone would probably think that tomato ketchup would originate from the US, and they#39;d be right. The first recipe popped up in 1801 in the #39;Sugar House Book#39;, an American publication. What#39;s interesting about our favourite condiment, however, is that ketchup was based on an older recipe.人人都会以为番茄酱起源于美国,他们没错。第一份制作食谱于1801年出现在《糖屋书》中,这本书由美国出版。但是,有趣的是,这款我们最喜欢的调味品其实是在一份更加古老的食谱基础之上制作而成。Its original name is #39;kê-tsiap#39; and it started in 17th Century China. While it has a name similar to the bottle of red stuff we shamelessly apply to everything, the actual sauce itself was made up of fish brine and spices. The Dutch and English would end up taking a few bottles back home with them, well-loved due to its ability to keep for large amounts of time, a key trait that sailors and travelers appreciated when stocking their larders. The sauce saw a lot of remixes on the original recipe - including a moment in time where mushrooms where a primary ingredient - before the tomato variation was devised.它 起初的名字是;kê-tsiap;(有研究认为英文中ketchup(番茄酱)一词源自于中文的ke-tsiap,来自闽南话,原指腌制鱼类产生的卤汁, 烹饪时用于调味--译者注),起源于17世纪的中国。尽管它的名字很像我们往各种食物上洒的红色调料,但实际的调味汁本身却是由鱼露和香料制成。荷兰人和 英国人最后就带了几瓶回家,这种酱汁得到厚爱,因为它能够保存很长时间,水手和旅行者很喜欢将其储存在食品室里。在最初的食谱中,这种酱汁由很多种材料混 合而成--最早的原料中还曾一度包含了蘑菇--后来才发明出了以番茄为原料的变种。 /201506/383140。

  PASADENA, Md. — Mucking around with sand and water. Playing Candy Land or Chutes and Ladders. Cooking pretend meals in a child-size kitchen. Dancing on the rug, building with blocks and painting on easels.马里兰州帕萨迪纳——在沙盘和水盘旁玩耍;玩《糖果大陆》(Candy Land)或《滑梯与梯子》(Chutes and Ladders)等桌上游戏;在儿童规格的厨房里玩过家家;在地毯上跳舞;堆积木并在画架上作画。Call it Kindergarten 2.0.就把它称作“幼儿园2.0”吧。Concerned that kindergarten has become overly academic in recent years, this suburban school district south of Baltimore is introducing a new curriculum in the fall for 5-year-olds. Chief among its features is a most old-fashioned concept: play.由于担心幼儿园在近几年过于侧重于教学,巴尔的以南城郊的这个学区在秋季为五岁学童引进了新课程。这个课程的特色则受到一个古老概念主导:玩耍。“I feel like we have been driving the car in the wrong direction for a long time,” said Carolyn Pillow, who has taught kindergarten for 15 years and attended a training session here on the new curriculum last month. “We can’t forget about the basics of what these kids need, which is movement and opportunities to play and explore.”“我觉得我们长久以来,把车开往了错误的方向,”在幼儿园教学长达15年的卡洛琳·皮洛(Carolyn Pillow)说。“我们不能忘记孩童所需的基础,那就是玩乐和探索的活动和机会。”皮洛上个月参加了为新课程开办的培训班。As American classrooms have focused on raising test scores in math and ing, an outgrowth of the federal No Child Left Behind law and interpretations of the new Common Core standards, even the youngest students have been affected, with more formal lessons and less time in sandboxes. But these days, states like Vermont, Minnesota and Washington are again embracing play as a bedrock of kindergarten.由于联邦政府《不让孩子掉队》法案(No Child Left Behind)的影响,以及对“共同核心”(Common Core)标准的解读,美国教学着重于提升数学与阅读分数,这让最年幼的学童也受到了影响,要上更多正式的课程,减少在沙坑玩耍的时间。但近来,佛蒙特州、明尼苏达州与华盛顿州等地,再次接纳玩耍,视其为幼儿园的基石。Like Anne Arundel County here, Washington and Minnesota are beginning to train teachers around the state on the importance of so-called purposeful play — when teachers subtly guide children to learning goals through games, art and general fun. Vermont is rolling out new recommendations for kindergarten through third grade that underscore the importance of play. And North Carolina is encouraging teachers to evaluate paintings, scribbles or block-building sessions, instead of giving quizzes, in assessing the ing, math and social skills of kindergartners.如同安妮阿伦德尔县这样,华盛顿州和明尼苏达州开始培训州内的教师,让他们了解所谓“目的性玩耍”的重要性:教师悉心引导学童借由游戏、艺术与一般的乐趣达成学习目标。佛蒙特州则推出新的教学建议,对幼儿园到三年级的学童强调了玩乐的重要性。北卡罗莱纳州则鼓励教师评比学童的画作、涂鸦与积木作品,而不是进行小测验,考察阅读、数学与社交技能。But educators in low-income districts say a balance is critical. They warn that unlike students from affluent families, poorer children may not learn the basics of ing and math at home and may fall behind if play dominates so much that academics wither.但是低收入地区的教育人士认为,如何平衡才是关键。他们告诫说,较贫穷的学童不是富裕家庭出身,可能无法在家里学到阅读与数学的基础,因此若让玩乐主导教学,这些学生的学术能力就会萎缩。“Middle-class parents are doing this anyway, so if we don’t do it for kids who are not getting it at home, then they are going to start at an even greater disadvantage,” said Deborah Stipek, the dean of the Graduate School of Education at Stanford.“中产阶级家长无论如何都会这样做。因此,如果我们不让学童获得家里无法得到的东西,他们在起跑线上就会更加处于劣势,”斯坦福大学教育学院院长黛拉·斯蒂佩克(Deborah Stipek)表示。Across the country, many schools in recent years have curtailed physical and art education in favor of longer blocks for ing and math instruction to help improve test scores. The harder work even began in kindergarten.近年来在美国各地,有许多学校缩短体育与艺术教育课程,并拉长阅读和数学的教学,从而帮助提升考试分数,甚至从幼儿园就开始致力于此。Most recently, more than 40 states have adopted the Common Core, standards for ing and math that in many cases are much more difficult than previous guidelines. In some school districts, 5-year-olds are doing what first or even second graders once did, and former kindergarten staples like dramatic play areas and water or sand tables have vanished from some classrooms, while worksheets and textbooks have appeared.最近也有超过四十个州采纳了共同核心标准,这套标准对阅读和数学的要求,在很多情况下难度都远超先前的准则。有些学区的五岁学童甚至开始学习一年级或二年级的课程内容。过去幼儿园里不可或缺的表演玩耍区、沙盘或水盘已经不复存在,取而代之的是练习册和课本。A study comparing federal government surveys of kindergarten teachers in 1998 and 2010 by researchers at the University of Virginia found that the proportion of teachers who said their students had daily art and music dropped drastically. Those who reported teaching spelling, the writing of complete sentences and basic math equations every day jumped.弗吉尼亚大学(University of Virginia)的研究者比较了联邦政府在1998年与2010年对幼儿园教师的调查,发现让学生每日进行艺术与音乐学习的教师比例大幅降低。而每日进行拼字、完整文句写作与基本算术的比例则大幅提高。The changes took place in classrooms with students of all demographic backgrounds, but the study found that schools with higher proportions of low-income students, as well as schools with large concentrations of nonwhite children, were even more likely to cut back on play, art and music while increasing the use of textbooks.出现这些变化的教室里,各种背景的学生都有。但该研究发现,低收入家庭学生比例更高的学校,以及非白人孩子大量集中的学校,更有可能在减少玩耍、美术和音乐时间的同时,增加课本的使用量。Experts, though, never really supported the expulsion of playtime.但专家从来没真正持过挤压玩耍的时间。Using play to develop academic knowledge — as well as social skills — in young children is the backbone of alternative educational philosophies like those of Maria Montessori or Reggio Emilia. And many veteran kindergarten teachers, as well as most academic researchers, say they have long known that children learn best when they are allowed ample time to go shopping at a pretend grocery store or figure out how to build bridges with wooden blocks. Even the Common Core standards state that play is a “valuable activity.”用玩耍来开发幼儿的学业知识和社交技巧,一直是替代性教育理念的基础,如玛丽亚·蒙特梭利(Maria Montessori)和雷焦·埃米莉亚(Reggio Emilia)的理念。很多资深的幼儿园老师,以及大部分学术研究人员均表示,他们早就知道,允许孩子用大量时间去模拟的食杂店买东西,或是利用积木弄明白如何搭建桥梁时,他们的学习效果是最好的。就连共同核心标准也阐明,玩耍是一种“宝贵的活动”。But educators point out that children are also capable of absorbing sophisticated academic concepts.但教育工作者指出,孩子也能有吸收复杂学术概念的能力。“People think if you do one thing you can’t do the other,” said Nell Duke, a professor of education at the University of Michigan. “It really is a false dichotomy.”“人们以为不能一心二用,”密歇根大学(University of Michigan)的教育学教授内尔·杜克(Nell Duke)说。“这是一种误解。”M. Manuela Fonseca, the early-education coordinator for Vermont, said her state was trying to emphasize the learning value of play in its new guidelines.佛蒙特州早期教育协调员M·曼纽拉·丰塞卡(M. Manuela Fonseca)说,她所任职的州正努力在其新制定的指导方针中,强调玩耍的学习价值。“Before we had the water table because it was fun and kids liked it,” she said. “Now we have the water table so kids can explore how water moves and actually explore scientific ideas.”“以前我们配水盘是因为它好玩,孩子们也喜欢,”她说。“现在我们配水盘,则是让孩子们能够探究水是如何流动的,实际上就是探索科学思想。”Still, teachers like Therese Iwancio, who works at Cecil Elementary School in Baltimore’s Greenmount neighborhood, where the vast majority of children come from low-income families, say their students benefit from explicit academic instruction. She does not have a sand table, play kitchen or easel in the room.然而,像特蕾泽·伊万乔(Therese Iwancio)这样的老师表示,他们的学生会从明确的学业指导中受益。她在巴尔的格林芒特社区的塞西尔小学(Cecil Elementary School)任教,那里绝大部分孩子来自低收入家庭。她的教室里没有沙盘和玩具厨房,也没有画架。“I have never had a child say to me, ‘I just want to play,’ ” said Ms. Iwancio, who has taught for two decades.“我从来没遇到哪个孩子对我说,‘我只想玩’,”已有20年教龄的她说。On a recent morning, she asked children to aloud from a simple book. On the wall hung a schedule for the day, with virtually every minute packed with goals like “I will learn sight words” or “I will learn to compose and decompose teen numbers.”前不久的一天早上,她让孩子们大声朗读一本简单的课本。墙上贴着当天的安排,几乎每一分钟都填满了诸如“我要学习常见字”或“我要学习组合和分拆十三到十九之间的数字”这样的目标。Jayla Stephens, 6, said she liked school because “you get to do a lot of work and you will get better.”六岁的杰拉·斯蒂芬斯(Jayla Stephens)说她喜欢上学,因为“你要做很多事情,而且会变得更好。”In neighboring, more affluent Anne Arundel County, 321 kindergarten teachers last month attended training sessions on the new curriculum. Required each day: 25 minutes of recess, 20 minutes of movement, 25 minutes in play centers. The district is buying sand or water tables, blocks, play kitchens, easels and art supplies for every classroom that does not have them.上月,在邻近的更富裕的安妮阿伦德尔县,321名幼儿园老师参加了针对新课程的培训。每天的要求是:25分钟休息时间、20分钟运动时间以及25分钟玩耍时间。该学区正在为没有配备相关用品的教室购买沙盘或水盘、积木、玩具厨房、画架和美术用品。Teachers were given tips on how to be more creative in academic lessons, too, like tossing a ball printed with different numbers to teach math.对于如何在正式的教学中更有创造力,老师们也得到了指点,比如在球上印上数字,用抛球的方式来教数学。“We don’t think that rigor negates fun and play,” said Patricia J. Saynuk, the coordinator of early-childhood education.“我们认为,严谨和乐趣、玩耍并不矛盾,”儿童早期教育协调员帕特里夏·J·塞伊努克(Patricia J. Saynuk)说。Traci Burns, who has taught kindergarten for the last five years at Annapolis Elementary School, said she was looking forward to retrieving previously banished easels.过去五年一直在安纳波利斯小学(Annapolis Elementary School)教幼儿园的特拉奇·伯恩斯(Traci Burns)说,她盼望着拿回以前被收走的画架。“With the Common Core, this has been pushed and pushed and pushed that kids should be ing, sitting and listening,” she said. “Five-year-olds need to play and color. They need to go out and sing songs.”“共同核心标准影响下,我们不断不断地强调孩子要看书、坐好、听老师讲,”她说。“五岁大的孩子需要玩耍和画画。他们需要出去唱歌。”At Hilltop Elementary, a racially and economically diverse school in Glen Burnie, Melissa Maenner said she had found that teaching kindergartners too many straightforward academic lessons tended to flop.在格伦伯尼的希尔托普小学(Hilltop Elementary),族裔和经济背景均比较多元。梅利莎·门纳(Melissa Maenner)说,她发现给幼儿园里的孩子上太多完全和学业有关的课往往会搞砸。“They are 5,” Ms. Maenner said. “Their attention span is about five minutes.”“他们只有五岁,”门纳说。“集中注意力的时间只有大约五分钟。” /201506/380283

  Nathaniel Branden wrote Ayn Rand a fan letter when he was a teenager in Canada in the 1940s. He wanted to tell her how much he admired “The Fountainhead,” her novel about a brilliant architect’s proud resistance to what he perceived as the world’s inclination toward collectivism and mediocrity.20世纪40年代,十几岁的加拿大人纳撒尼尔·布兰登(Nathaniel Branden)给安·兰德(Ayn Rand)写了一封崇拜信,想告诉她自己有多么热爱她的《源泉》(The Fountainhead),这本小说讲述一个杰出的建筑师意识到这个世界正在滑向集体主义与平庸,于是骄傲地与之对抗。Ms. Rand did not respond, but Mr. Branden did not give up.兰德没有回复,但布兰登没有放弃。A few years later, while attending college in California, he wrote to her again. This time she did respond, and then some.几年后,已经在加利福尼亚上大学的他再次给她写信。这一次她回复了,两人开始通信。In relatively short order, they became philosophical soul mates, unlikely lovers and business associates. He was 25 years younger than she and, like her, married to someone else. That hardly mattered. Both believed in “rational selfishness” and unlimited capitalism, theories Ms. Rand embraced in “The Fountainhead” (1943) and her later blockbuster, “Atlas Shrugged,” which was published in 1957 and originally dedicated to both her husband, Frank O’Connor, and Mr. Branden.两人很快成了哲学上的灵魂伴侣、不可思议的恋人与生意伙伴。他比她年轻25岁,两人分别同其他人结了婚。但这不是问题。两人都相信兰德在《源泉》和她后来风靡一时的《阿特拉斯耸耸肩》(Atlas Shrugged)中全心信奉的“理性的自私”与不受限制的资本主义。《阿特拉斯耸耸肩》于1957年出版,最初是题献给她的丈夫弗兰克·奥康纳(Frank O’Connor)和布兰登这两个人的。Mr. Branden, who was 84 when he died on Wednesday at his home in Los Angeles County, would go on to change his name at Ms. Rand’s suggestion (it had been Nathan Blumenthal) and to become perhaps her most ardent disciple. In 1958 he started the Nathaniel Branden Institute, where he helped repackage her ideas — Objectivism, she called her philosophy — into lectures, recordings, books and articles.布兰登于周三在洛杉矶郡家中去世,享年84岁。认识兰德后,他成了其最热情的门徒,还按她的建议,把自己的名字由内森·布卢门撒尔(Nathan Blumenthal)改为纳撒尼尔·布兰登。1958年,他创立了纳撒尼尔·布兰登学院,重新把她的思想(她把自己的哲学称之为“客观主义”)包装为讲座、录音、书籍和文章。For the next decade, theirs was a distinctive and largely productive collaboration — at Ms. Rand’s insistence, both of their spouses knew of their extramarital relationship, though few outside their inner circle did — and it raised both her profile and his. Founded in New York, the Nathaniel Branden Institute grew to have branches in dozens of cities. Among its speakers was Alan Greenspan, the future chairman of the Federal Reserve Board.接下来的十年里,两人的合作极为独特,而且非常高产,从而对两人的形象都有提升。在兰德坚持之下,两人的伴侣都知晓了这段婚外恋,不过这段关系在他们的小圈子之外罕有人知。纳撒尼尔·布兰登学院在几十个城市内设立了分校。后来当上美国联邦储备委员会主席的艾伦·格林斯潘(Alan Greenspan)也曾是学院的演讲者之一。But by the late 1960s, Mr. Branden’s relationships with Ms. Rand and with his wife, Barbara, had deteriorated. It did not help that he had begun a relationship that year with a fashion model, 15 years his junior, Patrecia Scott, who had attended his lectures (and whom he later married).但是到了20世纪60年代末,布兰登与兰德和妻子芭芭拉(Barbara)之间的关系每况愈下。同时他又和来听他讲座的时装模特帕特里西亚·斯科特(Patrecia Scott)之间开始了一段恋情,这自然更加于事无补。斯科特比他小15岁,两人后来结婚了。In the summer of 1968, Ms. Rand announced in an article for The Objectivist magazine that their collaboration was over, claiming that both of the Brandens had taken financial advantage of her. The Brandens publicly denied the charge.1968年夏,兰德在为《客观主义者》(The Objectivist)杂志撰写的文章中宣布两人之间的合作告终,并称布兰登夫妇在财务上占她便宜。布兰登夫妇公开否认了这一指责。The split also caused a divide among Ms. Rand’s followers. Mr. Branden had become a draw himself, and he soon began promoting a revised version of their early ideas, shifting the emphasis from self-interest to self-esteem. He moved to Southern California, where he started a new organization, the Institute of Biocentric Psychology, and wrote a book, “The Psychology of Self-Esteem” (1969).这一分裂也在兰德的持者中造成了分歧。布兰登本人也成了重要人物,很快就开始宣传两人早期观点的修订版,重点从自利转向自尊。他移居南加利福尼亚,开创了新机构:生物中心心理学学院(the Institute of Biocentric Psychology),并于1969年出版著作《自尊心理学》(The Psychology of Self-Esteem)。He was well established in private practice when the extent of his early relationship with Ms. Rand became public. In 1986, his first wife, Barbara, told the story in the book “The Passion of Ayn Rand.” That book also divided Ms. Rand’s followers, but Ms. Branden received generally favorable reviews for what critics said appeared to be her clear effort to be fair to Ms. Rand. The book was made into a 1999 Showtime movie starring Helen Mirren as Ms. Rand and Eric Stoltz as Mr. Branden.与兰德的早年关系曝光之时,布兰登的个人事业已经获得相当大的成功。1986年,他的第一任妻子芭芭拉在《安·兰德的热情》(The Passion of Ayn Rand)一书中披露了他们之间的故事。这本书再次在兰德的追随者之间造成了分裂。但是芭芭拉的书获得了普遍好评,家都认为她显然很努力地去公平对待兰德。1999年,这本书被映时影业搬上银幕,由海伦·米伦(Helen Mirren)饰演兰德,艾瑞克·斯托罗兹(Eric Stoltz)饰演布兰登。In 1989, Mr. Branden offered his own version of the relationship in “Judgment Day: My Years With Ayn Rand.” It was not as well received as his wife’s account.1989年,布兰登出版了《审判日:我与安·兰德共度的岁月》(Judgment Day: My Years With Ayn Rand),从自己的角度讲述了这段关系,不过获得的评价却不如他前妻的那本书。Reviewing the book in The New York Times, the feminist writer Susan Brownmiller called “Judgment Day” “an embarrassing venture.”女性主义作家苏珊·布朗米勒(Susan Brownmiller)在为《纽约时报》撰写的书评中称《审判日》是“令人尴尬的冒险”。“Renegades from extremist movements are seldom likable in their new incarnations: their justifications ring hollow, their demands for sympathy tend to sound whiny,” Ms. Brownmiller wrote. “Mr. Branden compounds this inherent problem by replacing his Objectivist rhetoric with a massive dose of psychobabble from the California human-potential movement, in whose therapeutic vineyards he has fashioned a second, and apparently successful, career.”“极端主义行动中的叛徒如果有了新的化身,也很难被人喜爱:他们的辩解空洞无力,他们要求同情的呼声听上去似乎只是牢骚而已,”布朗米勒写道,“为了调和这个固有的问题,布兰登把自己的客观主义修辞替换成大堆加利福尼亚人类潜能运动中的心理学呓语,在该运动的治疗场所中,他为自己重塑了事业第二春,显然还很成功。”Nathan Blumenthal was born on April 9, 1930, in Brampton, Ontario, and grew up in Toronto. He attended the University of California, Los Angeles, before following Ms. Rand to New York, where he earned a master’s degree at New York University. He later received a doctorate from the California Graduate Institute, where he also taught.内森·布卢门撒尔于1930年4月9日出生于安大略省的布兰普敦,在多伦多长大。他曾在洛杉矶的加利福尼亚大学就读,后追随兰德来到纽约,在纽约大学获得硕士学位。后来他在加利福尼亚研究生院获得士学位,并在那里任教。His wife, Laurie, also known as Leigh, whom he married in 2006, said the cause of his death was complications of Parkinson’s disease. His survivors also include a sister, Elayne Kalberman. Barbara Branden died in 2013. Among Mr. Branden’s many other books are “The Six Pillars of Self-Esteem” (1994), “Taking Responsibility” (1996) and “The Art of Living Consciously” (1997).他于2006年再次结婚,妻子劳里(Laurie)又名利(Leigh),她宣布他的死因是帕金森症引发的并发症。他的姊伊雷恩·考曼(Elayne Kalberman)尚在人世。芭芭拉·布兰登于2013年逝世。纳撒尼尔·布兰登生前有很多著作,包括《自尊的六大柱》(The Six Pillars of Self-Esteem,1994)、《承担责任》(Taking Responsibility, 1996)和《好奇生活的艺术》(The Art of Living Consciously, 1997)。 /201412/348086

  ;This story about Jack and the Giant...it#39;s really about you and your boss,isn#39;t it?;这个故事写的是关于杰克和镇特的事情,...实际上说的是你和你的老板,对吗? /201507/384543

  London’s future is up for grabs. When you try to imagine what direction the city might go in, it’s useful to think about Vienna. A century ago the capital of the Austro-Hungarian empire was a rich cosmopolitan metropolis. It was an incubator of modernity, attracting people from all over, some of them nuts. Here are a few of Vienna’s residents in 1913 (as listed by B radio’s Today programme): Sigmund Freud, Hitler, Stalin, Trotsky, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and a young automobile worker named Josip Broz, who eventually became the Yugoslav dictator Tito.伦敦的未来是一片纷乱。当你试图想象这座城市可能前进的方向时,想一想维也纳会有所帮助。一个世纪前,这座奥匈帝国(Austro-Hungarian empire)的首都曾是一个富裕的国际化大都市。它是现代性的孵化器,吸引着世界各地的人们,其中一些是疯子。这里是部分1913年在维也纳居住过的人士(名单由B电台《今日》(Today)节目列出):西格蒙德#8226;弗洛伊德(Sigmund Freud)、希特勒(Hitler)、斯大林(Stalin)、托洛茨基(Trotsky)、弗朗茨#8226;斐迪南大公(Archduke Franz Ferdinand)以及一个名叫约瑟普#8226;布罗兹(Josip Broz)的年轻汽车工人,也就是最终成为南斯拉夫独裁者的铁托(Tito)。But by 1918, the Austro-Hungarian empire was gone. Today most Freuds live in London, and Vienna is a backwater.但到了1918年,奥匈帝国已灰飞烟灭。如今,大多数“弗洛伊德们”生活在伦敦,维也纳成了一潭死水。A century from now, London could be a backwater too. The city faces its own set of threats. Most pressingly, few people can afford to raise families there any more. London may become a gated playground for the super-rich. However, there’s an alternative scenario in which the place just keeps getting more successful. Aly the contours are emerging of a future London: the city as a giant drop-in office for millions of occasional workers who live far away, often in other countries. A ring of satellite cities ranging from Manchester to Rotterdam would turn into a new set of suburbs for London.一个世纪之后,伦敦也可能成为一潭死水。这个城市面临着自己的一系列威胁。最紧迫的是,已经没有多少人有能力在那里抚育子女了。伦敦可能会成为超级富豪们封闭的游憩圣地。然而,还有一个可能性是,伦敦只会变得越来越成功。这样一种未来的轮廓已经开始显现:伦敦会变成一个巨型的流动办公室,数百万居住地离它十万八千里、往往在另一个国家的临时工作者随来随走。从曼彻斯特到鹿特丹,一连串卫星城将变成新的伦敦郊区。The problem London needs to solve, says Andrew Adonis, Londoner, Labour peer and writer, is, “Housing, housing, housing.” What’s happening in London’s housing market can no longer be described as gentrification. That was the ousting of the city’s working class and bohemians. Now many upper-middle-class people are being forced out too. Michel Mossessian, a French architect in London whose firm employs lots of nationalities, sees something of a “seven-year cycle”: people work for seven years in London but then often leave once they have children. It’s not just that the average three-bedroom home in London now costs #163;1.1m, according to Home.co.uk. It’s also that London’s state schools — despite vast recent improvements — will probably never meet the standards of the world’s most aspirational parents. Simply being the best state schools in England isn’t enough.作家安德鲁#8226;阿多尼斯(Andrew Adonis)说,伦敦需要解决的问题,“除了住房还是住房”。阿多尼斯是伦敦人,工党成员,已受封贵族。伦敦房地产市场发生的事情,已不再能被称为中产阶级化。那是一场对生活在那个城市的劳动者阶层和文化艺术人士的驱逐。现在,许多中产阶级上层人士也被迫离开。法国建筑师米歇尔#8226;莫赛西昂(Michel Mossessian)在伦敦的事务所雇佣了很多不同国籍的员工,他发现“七年是个坎儿”:人们在伦敦工作七年,一旦有了孩子,通常就会离开。这不仅是因为如今伦敦一套三居室的房子一般要110万英镑(Home.co.uk网站数据)。还因为伦敦的公立学校(尽管近期有巨大改善)很可能永远无法达到世界上最望子成龙的父母们的标准。仅仅进入英格兰最好的公立学校是不够的。The solution: London needs to adopt satellite cities that can house a new tribe of “occasional Londoners”. In the Victorian era, the coming of the Tube and trains allowed London workers to move to suburbs. Soon high-speed trains will allow occasional London workers to live hundreds of miles away, around Britain or abroad.解决方案是:伦敦需要设立卫星城,以容纳一群新的“临时伦敦人”。在维多利亚时代,伦敦地铁(the Tube)和火车的到来,让在伦敦工作的人们得以搬到郊区居住。很快,高铁将让临时的伦敦通勤者得以生活在数百英里之外的英国各地或其他国家。The UK currently has just 68 miles of high-speed rail line, from London to the Channel tunnel. But when the High Speed 2 line opens over the next 20 years, Birmingham will be 49 minutes from London, and Manchester just over an hour. “That’s hugely exciting,” says Adonis.英国目前仅有长68英里、连接伦敦和英吉利海峡隧道(The Channel Tunnel)的高铁。但高铁2号线(High Speed 2 line)将在未来20年内贯通,届时从伦敦到伯明翰只要49分钟,到曼彻斯特仅一个多小时。阿多尼斯称:“这非常令人兴奋。”Aly cities such as Paris, Lille and Brussels are joining the Londonsphere. I live in Paris. Sometimes I drop the kids off at school at 8.30am and later that morning meet someone for coffee near King’s Cross. I will probably never live in London again but I don’t mind. London and Paris are now perhaps the two most connected cross-border metropoles in history, an unprecedentedly creative network with trains carrying ideas back and forth. But I also know people who live in Germany or Spain and work in London a couple of days a week.巴黎、里尔以及布鲁塞尔这样的城市已经加入了伦敦生活圈(Londonsphere)。我住在巴黎。有时,早上8点半我开车把孩子送到学校,当天上午晚些时候我就在国王十字车站(King#39;s Cross)附近和别人喝咖啡了。我很可能永远不会再住在伦敦,但我并不介意。如今,伦敦和巴黎可能是有史以来两个联系最紧密的跨境大都会,在这个具有空前创新性的网络上,火车将各种观念来回传送。不过我也知道有住在德国或西班牙的人,每周到伦敦工作两天。London companies will need to strike a new deal with occasional workers: live somewhere else but drop in on us regularly. The companies won’t need to pay these people the “London premium” on salaries, or rent lots of expensive office space. The trains that carry occasional Londoners will themselves act as de facto offices: the Eurostar, French TGVs and Thalys, in utter contrast to suburban commuting trains, guarantee you a seat and a fold-out table. Sometimes the WiFi even works. Trains also free you from the Dilbertian timewasting of office life: the colleagues loafing around your desk grumbling about the commute, the boss or José Mourinho.伦敦的企业需要与临时劳动者达成一个新协议:住在别的地方,但定期来我们这儿。这些企业无需在工资方面向他们付“伦敦溢价”,也无需租很多昂贵的办公室。临时伦敦人乘坐的火车本身就将充当事实上的办公室:与郊区通勤列车完全不同的是,欧洲之星(Eurostar)、法国TGV高速列车和大力士高速列车(Thalys)可以保你有一个座位和一张折叠桌板。有时WiFi甚至能用。火车还可以把你从呆伯特式(Dilbertian)浪费时间的办公室生活中解放出来:同事们无所事事地围在你的桌子旁,抱怨通勤,抱怨老板,或抱怨若泽#8226;穆里尼奥(José Mourinho)。 Occasional Londoners can buy a family home in Lille or Rotterdam, spend #163;15,000 a year travelling to London for work and fun for 40 years and still be better off than if they’d spent that #163;1.1m on a house in London. And they won’t have to school their kids there. Homeshare websites such as Airbnb are solving London’s shortage of affordable hotel rooms while allowing the city’s large population of slacker-heirs to monetise their only asset.临时伦敦人可以在里尔或鹿特丹为家人购置一套房子,每年花1.5万英镑用于前往伦敦工作和,这样40年下来他们仍将比当初花110万英镑在伦敦购买一所房子要过得富裕。而且,他们不必让孩子在伦敦上学。包括Airbnb在内的租房网站正在解决伦敦平价旅馆客房短缺的问题,同时又可以让伦敦大量不思进取的土著用自己唯一的资产取得收入。In this scenario, London becomes not Vienna but Tokyo. Specifically: Greater Tokyo, brilliantly served by bullet trains, and today the biggest metropolitan area in history with about 36 million inhabitants. That’s a nice target for the Londonsphere. London would then be the capital of a new informal empire spanning several countries.在这种情形下,伦敦不会变成维也纳,而是会变成东京。准确地说是变成大东京地区(Greater Tokyo):子弹头列车提供了极其便捷的交通,如今它是有史以来最大的都市圈,拥有约3600万居民。这对伦敦生活圈来说是一个很好的目标。伦敦将成为一个新的横跨多国的非正式帝国的首都。London as giant drop-in office could be a reality within 20 years. That may seem improbable. But just over 20 years ago, nobody imagined that this grey city with 1960s Tube trains, separated from the continent only by a long traffic jam to Heathrow and then hours of dead time, could ever exert such attraction that a three-bedroom house would cost #163;1.1m.伦敦成为一个巨大的流动办公室,这也许会在20年内变成现实。看上去或许不可能。但就在20年前,也没人想到这座拥有上世纪60年代的地铁系统、与欧洲大陆之间隔着一条通往希思罗机场的长长的拥堵车流、以及数小时失联时间的灰暗城市,能够展现出这样的吸引力,以至于一套三居室的房子要卖110万英镑。 /201504/371156

  If this of a father dressing up as Spider-Man to surprise his cancer stricken son doesn’t move you, you’ve officially got no heart.这个视频记录了一位父亲易装蜘蛛侠以给身患癌症的儿子惊喜。如果这都感动不了你,那你真是没心了。In the clip, dad Mike Wilson dresses as the web-slinging superhero as a birthday surprise for five-year-old son Jaden, who is currently battling a Grade 4 brain stem tumour, a condition which gives sufferers a year to live.在视频片段中,这位名为迈克·威尔逊的父亲变身为会吐丝织网的超级英雄,为五岁的儿子杰登献上生日礼物。杰登现正和一个四级的脑肿瘤干细胞做斗争,这种病的患者只有一年可以活。The youngster looks stunned as Mr Wilson, a parkour enthusiast from Hampshire, is seen to jump from the roof of their home, before introducing himself to Jaden and grilling the birthday boy on his age.当来自汉普郡的跑酷狂热党威尔逊先生从自家房顶跳下后,还没来得及向杰登介绍自己和拷问小寿星的年龄,孩子已经看呆了。After giving Jaden a hug, Spidey proceeds to scoop him up in his arms before going back into their house, where they presumably swapped tips on how to defeat Dr Octopus and the Green Goblin.拥抱杰登之后,蜘蛛侠先用双臂兜起孩子,然后走进家去,想必和孩子交换了怎样制章鱼士和绿恶魔的方法。Mike remains upbeat about his son’s diagnosis and said: ‘Today he is still with us fighting it all the way, but at least he has Spider-Man to take care of him’.对于儿子的诊断,迈克保持乐观态度:“今天,他仍和我们一路抗争着,但至少他有蜘蛛侠的照顾。”YouTube commentators were quick to hail the , with one praising Mike as ‘dad of the century’.YouTube很快捧红了这段视频,有网友称赞迈克为“本世纪的超级爸爸”。 /201501/356301。


  For better weight control, fiber up!想控制体重,多补充纤维吧!The latest trick to fighting obesity isn#39;t a focus on eating less fat or sugar (although that would probably help): It#39;s eating more fiber. And not just any kind of fiber. It should be the fermentable type. Microbes in the gut chow down on this type of fiber. As they break it down, they release a chemical that moves to the brain. There it curbs appetite.最新的减肥方法不是减少脂肪和糖分的摄入(尽管吃多吃这些也可能会让你变胖),而是多吃纤维。这里所说的纤维并不是任何一种都可以,而是那种可以发酵的纤维。肠内的细菌会对这种类型纤维大快朵颐。当它们将其分解时会释放一种化学物质传送给大脑,此时食欲会被控制。Researchers at Imperial College London, in England, say their study is the first to link eating fiber to the brain hormones that help you feel full. They published their findings April 29 in Nature Communications.英国帝国理工学院研究者称他们是首例把食用纤维和大脑荷尔蒙联系起来解释食用者会有饱腹感。4月29日他们在自然通讯上发表了这一结果。Scientists have known that obese people tend to eat foods low in dietary fiber. At some level, that made sense. Fermentable fiber - fiber that is broken down by gut microbes - makes people feel full after eating somewhat less. Such fiber is found in fruits, vegetables, oats and barley.科学家们发现肥胖的人通常不会食用多纤维食物。在某种层面上这种做法合情合理。可发酵纤维,即可以被肠道细菌分解的纤维会让人们有饱腹感,尽管吃的很少。水果,蔬菜,燕麦等食物中含有此类纤维。Hundreds of thousands of years ago, our paleolithic ancestors ate nearly 100 grams of fermentable fiber each day, says Gary Frost. He#39;s a dietician who led the new study. Today, people#39;s diets are very different. We eat only 10 to 20 grams of all types of fiber each day. Most comes from whole-grain wheat and bran. Those types do not break down in the gut, Frost notes. Modern diets also are full of convenience foods, such as snacks and frozen dinners. These tend to be high in fat and sugar. Add in our couch-potato lifestyle and it#39;s a recipe for obesity.新研究领导者兼营养学家Gary Frost称几十万年以前,我们的旧石器时代祖先每天吃掉近100克的发酵纤维,而今天人们的饮食较之从前大有改变。每天我们仅摄入10-20克各类型纤维,多数是全麦小麦和麦麸,这类粗纤维食物恰恰不会在肠胃里分解。现代饮食同时也充满了各类快捷食品,如冷冻餐和快餐等等。而这类食品正好富含脂肪和糖分,加入了我们;沙发土豆;的生活方式,助肥为虐。Eating more fermentable fiber reduces the risk of becoming overweight or obese. But until the new study, exactly how the fiber did that was unclear.食用更多可发酵纤维能够降低超重或者肥胖的危险,但是直到新研究的问世人们才具体的了解粗纤维是如何起作用的。译文属 /201506/381143

  SEATTLE — It’s hard to believe that this coffee-crazed city would get excited about yet another coffee shop, particularly another Starbucks.西雅图——你可能很难相信,这个以咖啡闻名的城市会因为一家新咖啡馆而激动不已,何况只是另一家星巴克(Starbucks)咖啡馆。For over a year, the Seattle coffeecenti has been buzzing with speculation about the opening of the Starbucks Reserve Roastery and Tasting Room, the flagship of a planned chain of 100 plush stores selling high-end coffees from around the world.在一年多的时间里,一直有传闻称,这个诞生于西雅图的咖啡品牌将开设一家名为“星巴克精品烘烤品尝室”(Starbucks Reserve Roastery and Tasting Room)的旗舰店。星巴克计划开设100家这样的精品咖啡连锁店,销售来自世界各地的高端咖啡。With this new venture, Starbucks has signaled that it intends to lure aficionados of high-end coffee, as it eyes the growing market for rare coffees, those beans grown in small quantities that sell for as much as for less than a pound.这个新项目表明,星巴克打算吸引高端咖啡爱好者,该公司正着眼于稀有品种咖啡日益庞大的市场。稀有咖啡豆种植规模小,不到一磅的售价就可能高达45美元(约合280元人民币)。But it aly faces considerable competition from boutique chains like Stumptown Coffee Roasters, Dillanos Coffee Roasters and Blue Bottle Coffee that have aly developed thriving businesses in what are known as single-origin coffees and microlots. Such coffees come from a single farm or small collective, typically hard to reach and fickle, so that production is limited and often available only at specific times of the year. Their customers tend to shun the sort of big-business ubiquity that a mass-coffee purveyor like Starbucks embodies.不过,星巴克面临着斯邓姆顿咖啡馆(Stumptown Coffee Roasters)、迪拉诺斯咖啡烘烤公司(Dillanos Coffee Roasters)和蓝瓶咖啡(Blue Bottle Coffee)等精品咖啡连锁店的激烈竞争,它们凭借所谓的单一产地和微批次(microlot)的模式而风生水起。这些品牌的咖啡只来自单一的农场或小型合作社,一般很难买到,因此产量有限,通常只能在一年中的特定时间才有。而这些咖啡的消费人群往往是那些厌倦了以星巴克为代表的无处不在的大众品牌的消费者。In fact, Laila Ghambari, director of coffee at Cherry Street Coffee House, which has 10 shops in the Seattle area, calls Starbucks the “McDonald’s of coffee.”事实上,樱桃街咖啡馆(Cherry Street Coffee House)的咖啡负责人莱拉·甘巴里(Laila Ghambari)把星巴克称作“咖啡中的麦当劳”。樱桃街咖啡馆在西雅图地区有10家门店。So to distinguish Reserve from its mass-market cousin, Starbucks is banishing, to a great extent, its green mermaid logo at the new shops and in the product line. The Reserve stores and line of coffees instead carry a star logo, along with a red “R.”为了与星巴克的大众市场品牌区别开来,星巴克精品烘烤品牌的新店和产品线,很大程度上摒弃了绿色美人鱼的商标,而是使用了一个星形标志,加上一个红色字母“R”。The reach into a higher-end market is another sign that coffee consumption in the ed States is growing only modestly, according to trade data on imports collected by Panjiva. The popularity of single-serve coffee makers like Keurig and Nespresso have added pressure.星巴克进军高端市场的努力还显示出,美国的咖啡消费增长缓慢,磐聚网(Panjiva)收集的进口贸易数据也印了这一点。Keurig和Nespresso等胶囊咖啡机的超高人气,也加剧了市场的竞争压力。“If you look at coffee imports over all for the last several years, it looks like a pretty mature market,” said Josh Green, chief executive of Panjiva. “There’s been a roller coaster in terms of price, but in terms of volumes, we’re talking about very modest growth — and that kind of market is usually where you see companies trying to go upmarket in terms of price and exclusivity.”“从过去几年咖啡进口的整体状况来看,市场似乎已经相当成熟,”磐聚网CEO乔希·格林(Josh Green)说。“价格上忽高忽低,但进口规模一直增长有限——在这类市场,通常会有许多企业想要走向高端,在价格和产品的独特性上提高档次。”The new Starbucks Roastery is rumored to have cost more than million. Part retail store, part manufacturing facility and part theater, the store intentionally evokes the chocolate room where Augustus Gloop met his fate in Willy Wonka’s candy factory. See-through tubes snake up out of the floor and under the ceiling, ferrying green coffee beans to copper-clad roasters and roasted beans to the coffee bars scattered like islands around the 15,000-square-foot space.据称,新的星巴克烘烤品尝室成本超过2000万美元。它集零售店、生产加工和剧场与一身,而且还故意营造出了奥古斯塔斯·格鲁普(Augustus Gloop)进入威利·旺卡(Willy Wonka)的巧克力工厂时的那种梦想成真的感觉。透明的管子在地板和天花板上蜿蜒,把绿色的咖啡豆送进镀了铜的烘烤机,接着将烘烤好的咖啡豆,送往向岛屿一样散落在1.5万平方英尺(约合1400平米)面积里的吧台。“This is a magical place where coffee comes to life,” said Liz Muller, director of concept design for Starbucks.“这是一个神奇的地方,它让咖啡拥有了生命,”星巴克的概念设计总监利兹·穆勒 (Liz Muller)。The noise the beans make as they rattle through the tubes — “like rain,” Ms. Muller says — is punctuated by the click-clack of an old-fashioned railway station split-flap display, except the schedule tracked here is of varieties of coffees being roasted. They are small lots from remote highlands in Africa, Latin America and Asia.咖啡豆在管子里哗哗作响的声音——“就像下雨,”穆勒说——中间夹杂着老式火车站里的信息屏,翻着字母牌显示信息的那种咔咔声,只不过这里的时刻表显示的是各种咖啡的烘烤时间。这些咖啡都来自非洲、拉丁美洲和亚洲遥远高地上的小块田地。“We’re going to take the customer on a journey, immersing them in an interactive environment where they’ll be introduced to handcrafted, small-batch coffees within feet of where they’re being roasted,” said Howard Schultz, chief executive of Starbucks.“我们要把消费者带上一段旅程,让他们沉浸在互动的环境里,让他们近距离地了解小批量手工生产的咖啡,”星巴克CEO霍华德·舒尔茨(Howard Schultz)说。Virginia Morris, vice president for consumer insights and strategy at Daymon Worldwide, a private-brand development company, noted that consumers were seeking singular experiences that would include individualistic brews. But specialty brewers who have attracted loyalists doubt that a giant in the mass-market will be viewed favorably.私营品牌拓展公司达曼国际咨询(Daymon Worldwide)的消费者洞见和战略副总裁弗吉尼亚·莫里斯(Virginia Morris)指出,消费者正在寻求独一无二的体验,包括个性化的咖啡制作工艺。但吸引了一批忠实拥趸的专享咖啡店十分怀疑,这样一个面向大众市场的巨人,能否受到青睐。“I think you can start out small and grow large, but once you’re large, it’s really hard to get the consumer’s perception that you are authentic,” said David J. Morris, half-owner of Dillanos.“我觉得品牌可以起步时很小,后来再逐步扩大,但一旦规模变大,真的很难让消费者认为你很正宗,”迪拉诺斯的半个老板戴维·J·莫里斯(David J. Morris)说。The company says the price per cup of a Reserve line will be to , depending on the exclusivity of the beans, of course.星巴克透露,每杯精品系列咖啡的价格将在4至7美元,当然具体视咖啡豆的独特性而定。Single-origin coffees typically are named for the places they are grown, not just the country. Stumptown’s website includes a link to Google maps, so a customer can see, say, where its Colombia San Isidro is grown.单一产地咖啡通常以它们的种植地,而不仅仅是国家命名。斯邓姆顿的网站上有可以跳转到谷歌(Google)地图的链接。这样,消费者就能看到这家店里诸如Colombia San Isidro这样的品类生长在哪里。Microlots come from a specific parcel of land, like the section of the Finca El Manzano coffee farm in El Salvador that grows Dillanos’s El Manzano Porton Lot, which produced just 60 bags of coffee last year and was used by Ms. Ghambari when she won the ed States Barista Championship this year.微批次咖啡来自具体的某块地,比如萨尔瓦多Finca El Manzano咖啡园中,为迪拉诺斯种植El Manzano Porton Lot的那块地。去年,那块地仅出产了60袋咖啡。甘巴里今年在美国咖啡师锦标赛(ed States Barista Championship)中夺冠时,用的就是那里出产的咖啡。“Each one has a signature nature, and each year it may be different, depending on when the rain comes and how much shade it gets,” said David Schomer, the proprietor of Espresso Vivace, which has three locations in Seattle, including a sidewalk stand in the Capitol Hill neighborhood, not far from the Reserve Roastery. “Each one will be roasted differently by the roaster, who may develop more or less caramelization or more or less bitterness.”“每块地都有标志性的特质,每年的情况都有所不同,取决于雨季到来的时间,以及植株能得到多少阴凉,”Espresso Vivace的老板戴维·绍默(David Schomer)说。该品牌在西雅图有三家店,其中一家位于国会山地区的一条人行道旁,距离星巴克的精品烘烤店不远。“烘烤师会以不同方式对每一个品类进行烘烤,焦糖化反应有轻有重,苦味也有轻有重。”Until recently, Dillanos Coffee Roasters largely served commercial customers, roasting private-label coffees and helping them develop house blends. “They need lots of coffee, not small lots of great coffee, and consistency is very important there,” said Chris Heyer, who owns the business together with his half brother, Mr. Morris.直到不久前,迪拉诺斯咖啡烘烤公司还主要务于商业客户,烘烤专属咖啡并帮助客户研发自有的调配咖啡产品。“它们需要大量的咖啡,而不是少量优质咖啡,而且口味的一致性非常重要,”克里斯·海尔(Chris Heyer)说。他和同母异父的兄弟莫里斯共同拥有该公司。About a decade ago, they started the One Harvest Project, a line of fair-trade, sustainable coffees, providing education, health and other benefits to growers with whom the company wished to develop long-term relationships.大约十年前,他们启动了“一次收获项目”(One Harvest Project)。这是一个推行公平贸易、可持续的咖啡业务线,该公司向希望与其达成长期合作关系的咖啡种植户提供教育、健康和其他方面的福利。That led to an even more exclusive line of coffees, DCR, which Phil Beattie, the Dillanos coffee director, called a natural progression that included the El Manzano microlot.这又催生了更为独特的咖啡品牌DCR。迪拉诺斯公司的咖啡总监称,这是包括El Manzano微批次在内的自然发展。The company may purchase less than 300 pounds of such coffees. In comparison, it roasts 2,000 pounds of its signature Dillons Blend coffee each day.该公司可能会购买不到300磅这种咖啡。相比之下,它每天会烘烤2000磅自有的主打品类“迪隆混合”(Dillons Blend)。So what happens when a company the size of Starbucks begins shopping for those precious beans, some of which may only be available for less than a month a year? Peet’s Coffee is selling a half-pound bag of scarce Jamaica Blue Mountain coffee, one batch roasted on Wednesday and the second scheduled for roasting next week, for .因此,如果一家像星巴克那么大规模的公司开始采购罕有品种的咖啡豆,会发生什么?那些咖啡豆中,有一些每年出产的时间可能都不到一个月。皮特咖啡(Peet’s Coffee)正在以45美元的价格,出售半磅装的牙买加蓝山咖啡(Jamaica Blue Mountain),第一批是上周三烘烤的,第二批定于这周烘烤。Specialty coffee companies say relationships established over many years with growers will protect them from competition from bigger players. “We have worked with our growers for a long time and we expect to continue to work with them,” said Eric Hoest, director of operations at Stumptown, which is based in Portland.精品咖啡公司称,多年来与咖啡种植户建立起来的关系,能保护它们免受更大品牌的竞争。“我们已经和种植户合作了很长时间,我们希望继续与他们合作,”总部位于波特兰的斯邓姆顿公司的运营总监埃里克·赫斯特(Eric Hoest)说。To expand in this area, Starbucks bought Hacienda Alsacia in Costa Rica, an estate that will produce specialty coffee just for the company.为了在该领域扩张,星巴克买下了哥斯达黎加的Hacienda Alsacia咖啡园。该咖啡园将仅为该公司供应精品咖啡。Starbucks roasters will be available only at five or six new sites, but some of the Reserve coffee brands will be for sale in over 1,000 Starbucks stores.星巴克的烘烤设备仅会在五六家新店配置,但部分精品咖啡品牌将在1000多家星巴克咖啡店出售。Mr. Schultz said his vision for the Reserve Roastery store stretched back a decade or more, and he collected a scrapbook with ideas for finishes and furnishings. But it wasn’t until a used car dealership nine blocks up Pine Street from the first Starbucks store became available that he began executing his plans.舒尔茨称自己对精品烘烤店的设想可以追溯到十年甚至更久之前,而且他还用一个剪贴簿,收集了有关涂漆和室内装饰的想法。但直到可以买下松树街上距离第一家星巴克咖啡店九个街区远的一家二手车店,他才开始执行自己的计划。He said the Reserve stores would be run as a business and must make a profit to survive. “At the end of the day,” he added, “this all has to be proven in a cup — and it will be.”他说,精品烘烤店会作为一家企业来运营,并且要想存活下来,就必须盈利。“说到底,”他接着说,“所有这些都需要在咖啡杯里得到明——也会得到明。” /201412/347248

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