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2017年12月19日 02:28:55

“Writing is easy,” the sports columnist Red Smith once said. “You just open a vein and bleed.”体育专栏作者瑞德o史密斯曾说过:“写作并不难,只需掏心挖肺地对待读者即可。”The same might be said of the car business. It’s easy: You just design and build great cars.汽车行业可能也有类似的表述。这不是件难事:只需要设计并造出好车就行。Of course, it isn’t that simple. As the recent misfortunes of General Motors GM 0.19% and Ford Motor F -0.30% demonstrate, something as straightforward as installing foolproof ignition switches or accurately calculating fuel economy can elude the most experienced of automakers.当然,事情并没有这么简单。通用汽车(General Motors)和福特汽车(Ford Motor)最近的负面新闻表明,最为老道的汽车制造商也会在傻瓜式点火开关的安装或燃油经济性计算精确性上面栽跟头。When it comes to marketing cars, there is an emerging debate that can most succinctly be described as mass vs. class.在汽车营销领域,一场争论正在如火如荼地进行当中,简而言之就是:车型数量与档次之争。On the mass side is analyst John Murphy, author of the long-running “Car Wars” study for Bank of America Merrill Lynch. Murphy is a fan of new models, the more the merrier. He has consistently demonstrated that market share is directly related to the number of new models a company introduces and the speed with which it refreshes them. While he concedes the importance of mix, pricing, execution, distribution, and brand power, he argues that the more rapidly product lines are expanded and refreshed, the more rapidly sales will grow. “Our measures of replacement rate and showroom age are the major driver of market share gains and losses,” he writes. “Successful new products drive higher market share.”分析师约翰o墨菲是“数量”派,他是美银美林(Bank of America Merrill Lynch)长期调查《汽车之战》(Car Wars)的作者。墨菲钟爱新车型,而且车型越多越好。在他的不懈努力之下,他所得出的结论是,市场占有率与制造商推出新车型的数量和速度有直接关系。在承认搭配、定价、执行、销售和品牌影响力的重要性的同时,他还认为,生产线扩张、更新的速度越快,销售业绩的增长也就越快。他写道:“更新率和展厅年限指标是企业获得/失去市场份额的主要原因。成功的新产品会带来更高的市场份额。”Leading the arguments for the class side is longtime marketing consultant and self-styled industry curmudgeon Peter De Lorenzo. De Lorenzo, who is based in Detroit, leads the AutoExtremist blog, calls himself “a purveyor of the bare-knuckled, unvarnished, high-octane truth,” and has been a rigorous defender of brand integrity. “How a brand is perceived can make or break a car company, regardless of how long and illustrious a run that brand has enjoyed up until any given point in time,” he wrote in June.“档次”派阵营的主要人物则是资深营销顾问、自称行业异类的皮特o德o罗伦索。德o罗伦索常驻底特律,是客“汽车极端分子”的主。他称自己是一位“非常规、朴实无华、最热门事实的提供者”,而且一直是品牌诚信的忠实拥趸。他在6月的文中写道:“人们对品牌的看法能造就、也能毁掉一家汽车公司,无论这个品牌在此前任何一段时间内拥有多么悠久或辉煌的历史。”De Lorenzo has been a persistent critic of luxury brands that use new models to grow volume. He believes they are compromising their identity by using their brand for vehicles that have no connection to heritage and history. “They believe that if they cover every niche in the market–both real and imagined–it will ensure their survival and profitability,” he contends. “But it doesn’t work,” he writes. “There are painful ramifications that come with their actions.”德o罗伦索一直都在批评豪华汽车品牌使用新车型来提升销量的做法。他认为,这种做法会有损品牌形象,因为品牌被用在了与其传承和历史毫无关联的车型身上。他指出:“这些厂商认为,如果公司能照顾到每一个细分市场(有的是真实存在的,有的是公司想象出来的),他们的生存和利润就有了保障。但这是行不通的,而且这种举措会带来痛苦的后果。”One of the unique strengths of “Car Wars” is its distillation of competitive intelligence, press clippings, speculation, and rumor analysis into a rigorous analysis of future product trends. In the most recent edition covering the years 2015 to 2018, Murphy identifies by model name and segment, every redesign and new model coming to the U.S. market. He sees a surge of new crossovers vehicles bearing the badges of luxury manufacturers that previously concentrated on sedans, coupes, and sports cars–among them Audi, BMW, Jaguar, and Bentley–and writes approvingly about the positive impact on sales. “If the numerous new German Lux CUVs are well received in the market,” he writes, “there may be some upside risk” in the market share of European OEMs.《汽车之战》的一个独特优势在于,它将竞争情报、新闻简报、观察和传闻分析进行过滤加工,然后整合成为未来产品趋势的严密分析。在最近一期涵盖2015-2018年趋势的调查中,墨菲按照车型名称和类别分别列出了进入美国市场的每一个重新设计的车型和新车型。他发现了新跨界车型的崛起,而这些车型出身于过去专注于轿车、轿跑和跑车的业界豪门,例如奥迪、宝马、捷豹和宾利,而且他还以赞许的口吻提到了这个趋势对于销售的积极影响。他写道:“如果大量的新型德系豪华CUV(混合型多用途车)在市场上得以热销,那么欧洲OEM(原始设备制造商)厂商的市场份额可能会面临一些上行风险。”Such product line extensions into unfamiliar segments by long-established brands induce a state of near apoplexy in De Lorenzo. Brandishing no research but effectively flexing his instinct from years in the business, he argues that automakers–particularly those with a racing heritage–should stick to making cars and leave crossovers and SUVs to the likes of Jeep and Land Rover. He gets especially vitriolic in discussing the strategies of the fast-rising German luxury makers, which seem to keep adding more body styles–BMW Active Tourer anyone?– aimed at freshening up their product lines and adding incremental volume:知名品牌这种将产品线扩展到陌生领域的做法几乎让德o罗伦索感到抓狂。德o罗伦索并不会拿什么调查来说事,而是有效地借助多年来形成的行业直觉。他指出,汽车制造商,尤其是那些拥有赛车传承的制造商,应该致力于制造轿车,同时将跨界车型和SUV交给吉普和路虎这样的生产厂家。讨论迅速崛起的德国豪华车制造商的决策时,他会变得尤为刻薄,因为这种讨论似乎总是围绕增加车型的种类——宝马Active Tourer车型,有人要吗?——它们的目的在于更新产品线,从而增加销量:o “[Audi] seems to be falling victim to the disease that’s infecting all of the German brands of late, the ded being all things to all people daze that leads these manufacturers to drop their guard and make mistakes.”“(奥迪)似乎患上了最近所有德国品牌无一幸免的传染病,这是一种面面俱到的可怕打法,它让消费者眼花缭乱,而且也让这些制造商放松了警惕,开始犯错误。”o “Almost everything that made BMW a BMW has been lost in translation.”“似乎BMW的一切精髓都已在车型大战中消失殆尽。”o “When [Mercedes-Benz is] off, well, they can stink up the joint like no other. Daimler is forced to stretch out its model lineup because it’s trying to fight a brutally competitive auto world without the resources of the other auto manufacturer conglomerates.”“当(梅赛德斯-奔驰)遭遇滑铁卢时,它的东施效颦能力较其他品牌有过之而无不及。戴姆勒被迫扩充车型数量,因为它没有其它汽车制造巨头的所拥有的资源作为依靠,而且还得硬着头皮去在这个竞争异常激烈的汽车产业中寻求自己的一席之地。”Murphy and De Lorenzo agree on some things. In the latest “Car Wars,” Murphy singles out Ford and Honda for their speedy replacement of existing models, and predicts that each will gain half a point of market share over the next three years. De Lorenzo likes both companies too. But he worries that if Ford “allows itself to get complacent, its prospects will be less than stellar,” and wonders about Honda, “will it stumble again and lose its way?”墨菲和德o罗伦索并不是在所有的观点上都格格不入。在最新一期的《汽车之战》中,墨菲单独例举了福特和本田,介绍了他们快速更换现有车型的举措。而且他还预测,在未来的三年中,这两家的市场份额都会增长0.5个百分点。德o罗伦索也很喜欢这两家公司。但是他担心,如果福特“放任自己不思进取,它的前景并不会太好。”同时他也为本田感到担忧,“它会再次摔倒而变得一蹶不振吗?”Who is the winner in this faceoff? The Car Wars analysis has a lot to recommend it. With statistics on new models going back to 1987, it possesses unusual depth. It is even-handed, and if it occasionally misses some fine points, it projects a reasonably accurate view of a company’s relative position in the market compared to its competitors. But Car Wars may be of less value going forward. As foreign automakers fill out their product lines and as all manufactures achieve more consistency in their product renewal cycles, there will be fewer big shifts in market share.在这场对峙中,谁会成为赢家?《汽车之战》的分析有很多都值得称道。调查涵盖了1987年的新车型的数据,深度非比寻常。这项调查十分公正,就算偶尔会遗漏一些细节之处,但它以合理的方式准确地展现了公司相对于竞争对手的市场位置。但是从长远来看,《汽车之战》调查的价值可能会缩水。因为随着外国汽车制造商生产线扩充的完成,以及各大制造商的更新周期变得更为一致,市场份额的波动将会更小。De Lorenzo plays favorites and rarely lets the facts get in the way of a good argument. German luxury car makers are enjoying record years, and despite some grumbling about the quality of lower-priced models and unconventional body styles, they appear to be holding on to their existing customers at the same time as they attract new ones. Passionate though he is, De Lorenzo can shift gears. At one time a ferocious opponent of Porsche’s diversification away from sports cars into SUVs and four-doors, he now praises the company for being “relentlessly focused” and “peerless” in its execution.德o罗伦索打的是喜好牌,而且很少让事实成为其有力观点的障碍。近几年,德国豪华车制造商的销售业绩接连创下历史新高,尽管人们对他们的低价车型和非传统车型的质量仍存在一些抱怨,但这些制造商不仅留住了现有的客户,还吸引到了新客户。虽然德o罗伦索是一个狂热分子,但他也有可能会反其道而行之。曾几何时,他曾强烈地抨击保时捷的多元化举措,即从跑车转向SUV()和四门轿跑领域,然而如今,他却对这家公司“不懈的关注”和“无与伦比”的执行表示赞许。And in the end, it is execution more than anything else that determines success or the lack of it. Look at Tata, owner of both Jaguar and Land Rover. Jaguar concentrated on sedans and coupes for its entire life and nearly expired. Now the first Jaguar crossover, the XQ, is due in 2017. Land Rover, on the other hand, has stayed focused on SUVs and thrived. Even its Sport model is expedition-capable and there are no signs of an active tourer on the horizon.最后,在所有的要素中,执行才是决定成败的决定性因素。我们不妨看看捷豹和路虎的母公司塔塔。捷豹始终专注于轿车和轿跑,差点破产。如今,捷豹的第一款跨界车型XQ将于2017年面世。另一方面,路虎一直专注于做SUV,并因此而兴盛起来。即使路虎的跑车车型都具有越野能力,而且它目前也并不打算推出类似于active tourer这样的车型。 /201406/307774哈密市去额头上的皱纹价格Technology reviewers are running out of superlatives to describe just how good it is. But they#39;re not talking about the latest from Apple. They#39;re talking about an Android: the HTC One. HTC#39;s new flagship phone is due April 19 for 9 with a contract.技术测评人士纷纷竖起大拇指,但他们夸的可不是苹果公司(Apple)的最新款手机,而是来自HTC(宏达电)的Android手机One。HTC这款全新主打产品将于4月19日面市,合约价为199美元。By many, many, many, many accounts it is one the best phones ever made -- and possibly the model that is finally better than an iPhone. Take a close look at what they#39;re are raving about.很多测评者都表示,HTC One是迄今最棒的机型之一,而且可能超越了iPhone。看看这些测评者到底怎么说的吧。Design设计:金玉其外HTC has wrapped the One in premium materials. No chintzy plastics here. Its case is carved from a single piece of aluminum. The phone, which is 0.36 inches thick and weighs about 5 ounces, is available in silver or black.HITC的One 手机外部采用高档材料,而非廉价的塑料。它的外壳是由一整块铝精雕细琢而成。手机厚0.36英寸、重约5盎司(约142克),有银色、黑色两种颜色可选。Impressive internals配置:卓尔不凡Inside, the phone features a Qualcomm (QCOM, Fortune 500) Snapdragon 600 Quad-Core processor running at 1.7 Ghz and 2 GBs of RAM, putting it on the high end of the Android spectrum. (Samsung#39;s upcoming Galaxy S4 features the same processor running at a slightly faster speed.) Internal storage comes in at 32GB or 64GB. One knock: There#39;s no SD card for storage expansion.这款手机配置了高通(Qualcomm)骁龙600四核处理器,运行速度为1.7GHz,内存为2 GB,在一众Android手机中十分出众。【三星(Samsung)即将推出的Galaxy S4手机采用了同系列处理器,只不过运行速度稍快。】One将发售32GB和64GB两个版本。不过有一点不爽:没有SD卡,因此无法扩大存储量。A gorgeous display显示:光照人The HTC One has a 4.7-inch screen at 1080p resolution, a.k.a. 1920x1080 pixels. That#39;s pretty much standard in this class of phones, but it squeezes an impressive 468 pixels-per-inch -- more than the S4 or Apple#39;s iPhone -- for crisper images and sharper text.HTC One手机采用4.7英寸屏,分辨率为1080p,即1920x1080像素。虽然这在这个等级的手机中几乎是标配,但它屏幕每英寸像素数高达468——比Galaxy S4以及苹果iPhone还高,因而图像和文字都更加清晰。Good sound声音:绕梁三日Like laptops, most smartphones don#39;t normally come with great speakers. HTC#39;s answer is so-called BoomSound dual stereo speakers. The name may be silly, but this Beats-designed setup sets the device apart. Crucially, the One#39;s two speakers are on the front of the device, not the back or sides.同平板电脑一样,大多数智能手机的扬声器通常都不怎么样。然而HTC One采用了所谓的BoomSound双立体声扬声器。虽然BoomSound这个名字有点傻,但这项由数字音响厂商Beats设计的功能令One手机卓尔不凡。最重要的是,它的两个扬声器都在手机的正面,而非背面或侧面。There are some drawbacks不足:白璧微瑕The One runs Android Jelly Bean, Google#39;s (GOOG, Fortune 500) latest, but HTC#39;s own software, dubbed Sense 5.0, operates on top. It features a new type of home screen, Blinkfeed, that draws on content from social feeds like Facebook and Twitter. Some people love it, some people don#39;t.One搭载了谷歌(Google)Android最新版本——果冻豆,但HTC同时还搭载了自家软件Sense 5.0。这款手机采用了一种新的主屏幕类型——Blinkfeed,从Facebook和Twitter等社交网络上抽取内容。至于说这是好是坏,就见仁见智了。And a so-so camera摄像头:差强人意The One packs a 4 megapixel camera, bucking the trend of cramming in increasingly more powerful cameras. (Samsung#39;s S4 will feature a 13 megapixel camera by comparison). Instead, HTC says its camera is an ;Ultrapixel; device, promising that the sensor pixels are twice as big as they are in most phone cameras. That means they gather more light, making for better low-light shots. In practice, resulting photos are a mixed bag.HTC One手机仅配置了400万像素的摄像头,一反手机摄像头像素越来越高的潮流。(相比之下,三星Galaxy S4手机将采用1300万像素摄像头)。相反,HTC表示,它的摄像头是一款“超像素”装置,称其传感器像素是大多数手机摄像头的两倍。这意味着它们能更好的聚光,从而在微光情况下获得更好的拍摄效果。实际上,One手机摄像头拍摄的照片有好有坏。 /201304/234964乌鲁木齐/西部医院去眼袋多少钱While it is not quite a curate’s egg, Apple’s mid-range iPhone 5c is a well-balanced evolution of the iPhone 5 that makes some safe choices without endangering the brand. There are some small improvements over last year’s iPhone 5 hardware, notably the update to iOS7. Apple has bundled even more first-party software to make the handset feature-rich out of the box. This is all wrapped up in the new colorful shells that make the iPhone 5c stand out in a retail sea of charcoal and white smartphones虽然iPhone 5c称不上不好不坏,但苹果(Apple)这款中档手机在iPhone 5的基础上兼顾了各方面而加以发展,做出了一些稳妥的选择,没有危及公司品牌。相较于去年的iPhone 5,这款手机有一些小小的改进,尤其是系统升级到了iOS 7。苹果为iPhone 5c捆绑了更多的自家应用,使它在拆开包装使用时即具备丰富的功能。这款手机都包裹在五颜六色的新壳当中,在由黑与白构成的智能手机海洋中,这些壳让iPhone 5c独树一帜。In previous years, Apple would have simply dropped the price of last year’s model to take the ‘silver’ spot on the iPhone podium. At their September 2013 event they revealed another approach. The iPhone 5c would take the place of the iPhone 5, while the iPhone 5s ( reviewed previously here on Forbes) would become the flagship phone.在过去几年里,苹果会调低上一年机型的价格,让新iPhone成为旗舰机型。在2013年9月举行的发布会上,他们展示了另一种方法。iPhone 5c将取代iPhone 5的位置,而iPhone 5s则将成为旗舰机型。Replacing the iPhone 5 has coloured the online viewpoint of the iPhone 5c, making it a cheaper iPhone 5 with the plastic case replacing the metal covering of the earlier models, while retaining the majority of the internals. In fact the iPhone 5c has several advantages over the 2012 flagship in hardware and software. Because the iPhone 5c can be marketed as a new smartphone, it’s a far more attractive handset to retail stores and consumers than a twelve month old iPhone 5.取代iPhone 5这件事让网络上对iPhone 5c的看法变得多样起来,它成为配备塑料外壳的廉价版iPhone 5,先前机型中的金属外壳不见了,但内部的大部分构件被保留下来。事实上,相对于2012年的旗舰机型来说,iPhone 5c在硬件和软件上均有多项提升。由于iPhone 5c可以作为一款新智能手机进行营销推广,相较于上市销售已有12个月的iPhone 5,它对零售商店和消费者来说更有吸引力。But we’re here to look at the handset as a whole, not the marketing exercises behind it. Putting aside the casing for the moment, those hardware changes start with the FaceTime camera on the front of the handset. The pixel count has increased to 1.2 megapixels, and there are improvements to the backside illuminated sensor. These result in a clearer picture for voice calls. Battery life has been improved through a mix of software improvements and a slightly larger battery. There are the improved LTE frequencies that allow an iPhone 5c to work in more countries on 4G. That’s great for the frequent traveller who is looking to roam, but I get the feeling that’s not the target market for this handset . What it does offer is another saving for Apple, this time in distribution and management as more worldwide support means less SKUs to manage.不过,我们在这里是从整体上讨论iPhone 5c,而不是只讨论其背后的营销策略。暂且抛开外壳不谈,iPhone 5c硬件的改进首先从手机正面的FaceTime摄像头开始,其像素数已经提升至120万,而且手机的背照式感光组件也得到了改进。这在进行语音通话时会让图片显示更清晰。通过一系列的软件改进以及装备尺寸稍大一点的电池,iPhone 5c的电池续航时间得以延长。LTE频率的改进则让iPhone 5c能够在更多国家的4G网络中使用,这对经常出差旅行需要手机漫游的人来说非常棒,但我感觉商务人士并非这款手机的目标市场。它为苹果提供的是另一种好处,即分销和管理更加轻松,因为持更多国家的网络意味着该公司需要管理的库存单位变少了。Finally you have the big selling point of the iPhone 5c, the colorful polycarbonate plastic casing. Replacing the metal casing that the iPhone 5 had and that the iPhone 5s retains, Apple has reduced the bill of materials cost in making the handset, which makes the traditional discount of 0 between the flagship and the second place model economical. Apple’s strategy continues to focus on high margins and desirable handsets, and the 5c allows them to continue the traditional pricing structure without having to compromise the margin a cheaper aluminium smartphone would offer.最后,我们终于要谈到iPhone 5c的最大卖点——多的聚碳酸脂塑料外壳了。通过替换掉iPhone 5以及iPhone 5s所使用的金属外壳,苹果减少了制造iPhone 5c的物料成本,这让旗舰机型和第二位机型之间100美元的传统差价显得非常经济实惠。苹果的战略继续专注于高利润率和大家都渴望拥有的手机上,iPhone 5c让该公司能够继续执行传统的定价结构,而不必牺牲一款较廉价铝制智能手机所能提供的利润率。It also allows Apple to bring some rather bright colours into the iPhone range, reaching out to the fashionable market with the handset available in white, red, yellow, blue, and green. iOS7 also provides a dynamic wallpaper for each color to theme the software environment to the case. Apple’s range of colors matches that of the iPod range and while it is a novelty on the iPhone, it simply brings them up to date with other manufactures, notably Nokia.它同样还让苹果把一些非常明亮的色带到iPhone系列产品中来,以白色、红色、黄色、蓝色以及绿色的不同色打入时尚的市场。iOS 7还针对每一种颜色提供了动态壁纸,以让软件运行环境跟手机外壳匹配。苹果提供的颜色选择跟iPod系列产品是一样的,尽管这在iPhone上是件新鲜事,但其实也只是跟上了其他手机制造商的步伐,尤其是诺基亚(Nokia)。What the polycarbonate does do is add slightly to the dimensions of the 5c over the 5s. The colorful model is roughly one millimetre larger in each direction. In a side to side comparison you can appreciate this difference, but in day-to-day use when you just have a 5c it’s not going to make a difference. The weight has also went up, the 5c has found another 20g over the 5s and the iPhone 5. I suspect this is a mix of larger battery and the plastic requiring more volume and mass to have enough strength and rigidity, although this is aided by an internal steel frame.聚碳酸酯外壳让iPhone 5c要比5s稍微厚一点,前者在各个方向上都要比后者大上1毫米左右。把这两款手机并排放在一起比较,你就能看出这种区别,不过当你只有一台5c时,这在日常使用中不会有什么影响。重量同样增加了,5c的重量比5s和iPhone 5要多20克。我怀疑这是因为5c装备了更大的电池,而且塑料也需要更多的体积和质量来提供足够的强度和刚度——虽然有内置的钢架进行撑。The iPhone 5c has a glossy and tactile feel to it, although I found there was enough friction between my hand and the case to keep the 5c feeling secure in my hand. This is helped by the smaller size of the 5c compared to devices like the Samsung Galaxy S4. It’s easier to grip around the sides of Apple’s smartphone, there’s less strain on the hand and arm with the lower weight of the device, and while the splashes of color might not be suitable for the boardroom, I had no qualms about bringing out the green review unit in social circumstances.iPhone 5c拥有光滑的触感,不过我发现在手跟外壳之间存在足够的擦力,让我能够牢牢把它握在手中。相较于三星(Samsung)Galaxy S4那样的手机,5c的较小尺寸也有助于这一点。你很容易从两侧握住苹果的智能手机,由于重量较轻,你的手和手臂也不会承受太大的负重。尽管缤纷的色不适于在会议室出现,但我会毫不迟疑地把一款绿色5c带到社交场合。The idea of the iPhone 5c being a personal and leisure smartphone is enhanced with the retail packaging. Shipping in a rounded box, the iPhone 5c looks more like an iPod Touch or iPod Nano than the more business-like iPhone 5s. Along with the smartphone, Apple has packaged a set of Apple EarPods, the lightning to USB cable, and an AC charger. All very consumer friendly and it sets the expectations of the device nicely.iPhone 5c是一款个性化和休闲的智能手机,这个信息由其零售包装加以强化。5c的包装是一个圆形的盒子,这让它看起来像iPod Touch或iPod Nano,而不是更具商务色的iPhone 5s。包装盒里除了手机,还有一组苹果EarPods耳机、闪电接口数据线以及交流充电器。这一切都对消费者非常友好,并让人对iPhone 5c产生很好的预期。 /201401/271752吐鲁番额头除皱多少钱


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