明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月19日 02:17:19

Cell phones have become ubiquitous even in the world’s poorest places. Now, researchers are using data collected by the devices to address third-world problems, according to a report provided exclusively to Fortune.甚至在世界上最贫穷的地方,手机也已经变得无处不在。《财富》杂志(Fortune)独家获得的一份报告披露,研究人员正在利用这些设备收集的数据来解决第三世界的问题。The report, produced by the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation in conjunction with strategy consulting firm Cartesian, argues that analyzing mobile data has the potential to improve the lives of the poor in many ways—from expanding access to banking services to tracking the sp of infectious diseases.这份由比尔和梅琳达o盖茨基金会(Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation)与战略咨询机构笛卡儿公司(Cartesian)合作推出的报告称,从扩大务的覆盖面到跟踪传染病的传播,分析移动数据有望从多个层面改善穷困人口的生活。Nirant Gupta, an author of the report, says research from Harvard and other large universities prompted the Gates Foundation to further analyze cell phone data in developing countries so that the findings could move from research to implementation.报告执笔人尼朗特o古普塔表示,哈佛大学(Harvard University)和其他大学的研究促使盖茨基金会进一步分析了发展中国家的手机数据,以便相关发现能够从研究转入实施阶段。“As we talked to researchers, we thought they were doing really interesting and exciting things,” he says.他说:“我们跟研究人员进行了深入交谈,我们认为他们正在从事的研究非常有趣,令人兴奋。”Studying 10 developing countries across sub-Saharan African and Asia, the researchers found that many residents view cellular phones as a necessity, even cutting back on food purchases to pay their phone bills. Although more than 60% of people in the countries studied live on less than per day, the majority of people there own cell phones. In Nigeria and Kenya, for example, 67% of adults own cell phones, while at least 58% do in India, Indonesia and Botswana. Even among people earning a day or less, more than half own mobile phones in Botswana, Kenya and Nigeria.研究人员研究了撒哈拉以南非洲和亚洲的10个发展中国家,发现许多居民都把手机看成是生活必需品,为了付电话费,宁愿节衣缩食。这些国家有超过60%的人口每天的生活费用不足2美元,但大多数人都拥有一部手机。例如,在尼日利亚和肯尼亚,67%的成年人拥有手机。在印度、印度尼西亚和茨瓦纳,至少58%的成年人拥有手机。茨瓦纳、肯尼亚和尼日利亚的许多人每天只能挣1美元,甚至更少,但其中超过一半人拥有一部手机。With the influx of new data, the report suggests new applications for it, such as creating better disaster relief programs. After the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, for example, several universities looked at data from cell phone towers and SIM cards to see where residents went after the quake hit. Instead of going to the closest “safe” zone, many survivors chose to go to locations where they had traveled to before.随着新数据的不断涌入,这份报告建议为这些数据开拓新用途,比如打造更好的灾难救济方案。例如,2010年海地大地震爆发后,几所大学通过观察手机基站和SIM卡的数据,来搜寻居民在地震发生后的踪迹。许多幸存者并没有去最近的“安全”地带,而是奔赴他们以前去过的地点。Jake Kendall, another author of the report, said the data could also be used in tracking diseases, for instance. By watching the mobility patterns of cell phone users, researchers can better understand how diseases like malaria sp and aim relief efforts at specific areas.报告的另一位作者杰克o肯德尔表示,这些数据也可以用来追踪疾病。通过观测手机用户的移动模式,研究人员可以更好地理解疟疾等疾病的蔓延方式,从而有针对性地在特定区域展开救援工作。Of course, mobile data collection raises issues of privacy. The report’s authors suggest that phone companies can scrub data of any personally identifiable information before releasing it to researchers.采集移动数据当然会引发隐私问题。这份报告的作者建议手机运营商删除所有可识别具体个人的信息,然后再把数据传送给研究人员。The data has endless potential to improve conditions in the developing world, far beyond the ways outlined in the report, the authors say. “The real opportunity is to take these tools and apply them more broadly. That would be where you’d make a larger impact,” says Ed Naef, vice president of strategy consulting for Cartesian, and one of the report’s lead authors.作者表示,手机数据具有改善发展中国家生存条件的无穷潜力,用途远远超出这份报告所列举的方式。笛卡尔公司战略咨询事务副总裁、这份报告的主要作者之一埃德o纳伊夫说:“真正的机会在于利用这些工具,更广泛地加以应用,这样就会带来更大的影响。”While the Gates Foundation has not yet announced projects that will implement the findings of the study, Gupta says that projects are in the works, including potential partnerships with the ed Nations Global Pulse, a U.N. initiative to use Big Data for humanitarian purposes.虽然盖茨基金会还没有宣布什么项目来利用这项研究得出的发现,但古普塔表示,相关项目正处于计划阶段,而联合国全球脉动(ed Nations Global Pulse)是潜在合作伙伴之一。后者是联合国发起的一个项目,旨在应用大数据来解决人道主义问题。 /201407/310996

Bells ringing from a church next to ChemChina’s headquarters yesterday morning provided a fitting soundtrack for the group’s chairman to explain its proposed 7.3bn takeover of Italian tyre group Pirelli.昨日上午在中国化工(ChemChina)总部,董事长任建新就这家集团对意大利轮胎企业倍耐力(Pirelli)的73亿欧元收购交易做出了解释。旁边的一间教堂传出阵阵钟声,充当了应景的配乐。“There is an old Chinese saying that it is better to knock down 10 temples than wreck one marriage,” Ren Jianxin, head of the state-owned chemicals group said. “It means that one must do everything in one’s power to facilitate a marriage. We are hoping that all the pieces can come together for our wonderful marriage with Pirelli.”任建新说:“中国有句老话,宁拆十座庙不毁一桩婚。这句话的意思是,人们要竭尽全力来成就一桩婚事。我们希望与倍耐力的联姻能美满。”Mr Ren and his counterpart at Pirelli, Marco Tronchetti Provera, believe the Italian group, which has a strong position in the high-end automotive tyre segment, can use its partnership with ChemChina to bolster its comparatively weak industrial tyres division, especially in China. “Pirelli’s size in this [industrial] segment is limited,” Mr Ren said. “Pirelli needs an Asian partner to develop its industrial tyre business.”倍耐力在高端汽车轮胎市场拥有强大地位,任建新与倍耐力负责人马可#8226;特隆凯蒂#8226;普罗维拉(Marco Tronchetti Provera)相信,这家意大利集团可以利用与其与中国化工的合作伙伴关系,做强它相对较弱的工业轮胎业务,尤其是在中国。任建新说:“倍耐力在工业轮胎市场的规模相对有限,它需要一个亚洲合作伙伴来发展这一业务。”China is the world’s largest automotive market, with 23m vehicles sold last year, but still has only 107 cars for every 1,000 people. That figure is expected to rise to 252 cars over the next 10 years.中国是全球最大的汽车市场,去年汽车销量230万辆,但每千人仍只拥有107辆汽车,预计未来10年这一数字将攀升至252辆汽车。The courtship between Pirelli and ChemChina began three years ago. But Mr Ren said the two companies’ hopes for a tie-up in 2012 were dashed when rumours of his approach leaked and “disturbed” the share price.倍耐力与中国化工的缘份开始于三年前。任建新表示,两家公司在2012年时就希望结盟,结果因为他接触倍耐力的消息走漏,引起股价“波动”,最终不了了之。Six months ago Mr Ren renewed negotiations with industrialist Mr Tronchetti Provera. “We really saw eye-to-eye,” ChemChina’s chairman said. “Our strategies and visions had not changed over the past three years.”半年前任建新再次与实业家特隆凯蒂#8226;普罗维拉洽谈,他说:“我们的看法完全一致,过去三年我们的战略和愿景都没有变过。”The first step in ChemChina’s complex takeover of Pirelli took place last week, when the Chinese group agreed to acquire holding company Camfin, Pirelli’s controlling shareholder.中国化工对倍耐力的收购过程颇为复杂,上周中国化工同意收购倍耐力控股公司Camfin所持倍耐力股份,踏出了整个收购计划的第一步。ChemChina will then make its more than 7bn offer for the entire company and take it private. According to Mr Ren, it ultimately intends to relist Pirelli’s automotive business in Italy and the two companies’ combined industrial tyre units in Asia.然后中国化工将发出整体收购要约,将倍耐力私有化,整个收购价超过70亿欧元。根据任建新的介绍,中国化工的最终打算是让倍耐力的汽车业务在意大利重新上市,以及两家企业合并后的工业轮胎业务在亚洲重新上市。He worries, however, that a rival bidder could scupper his plans. “I’m still worried about the deal, because after all it’s a public bidding process,” Mr Ren said. “Due to cheap liquidity, there might be blind counterbids that will hurt Pirelli investors and also the company’s longer-term strategy.”但任建新担心会出现竞购对手破坏他的计划,他说:“我还是担心这笔交易,因为这毕竟是个公开收购的过程。由于流动性便宜,可能会出现盲目还价,这样会既伤害倍耐力的投资者,也伤害这家公司的长期战略。”He hopes his promise to preserve Pirelli’s reputation as the “Prada of the tyre industry” will help to quell doubts about the ability of a Chinese state-owned Goliath with Rmb300bn in revenues and 140,000 employees to run one of the jewels in Italy’s industrial crown.任建新承诺要保住倍耐力“轮胎行业普拉达(Prada)”的声誉,他希望自己的承诺有助于消除关于一家中国国企是否有能力管理好倍耐力的质疑,倍耐力是意大利工业上的一颗明珠。作为中国的国企巨人,中国化工年收入3000亿元人民币,拥有14万名员工。“Our biggest pressure is to carry forward Pirelli’s culture, management and technology,” Mr Ren said. “Pirelli is a global brand that grew out of Italian soil. Can it grow if you change its soil? I don’t know and I don’t want to try#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;So we won’t move its headquarters, change management or transfer its technologies. This is all written in our agreement.”任建新说:“我们最大的压力是要继续发展倍耐力的文化、管理和技术。倍耐力是在意大利土壤上成长起来的国际品牌。如果改变土壤环境,它是否还能继续成长?我不知道,也不想尝试……因此我们不会迁移总部位置,变更管理层或转让它的技术。这些全写在我们的协议里。”Such reassurances appear to have won over Italian prime minister Matteo Renzi’s reformist government, which is highlighting the ChemChina-Pirelli deal as a sign of its more open policy on foreign investment as it seeks to boost the economy. On Saturday, Italy’s economic development minister, Federica Guidi, said Rome had “no right to intervene” in any such deal, especially as ChemChina’s takeover would make Pirelli “even more competitive”.上述保似乎已赢得了意大利总理马泰奥#8226;伦齐(Matteo Renzi)的改革派政府的赞同。伦齐政府正在寻求提振经济,因此对外国投资采取更开放的政策,它将中国化工与倍耐力的这笔交易视为政府开放立场的体现。上周六,意大利经济发展部部长费代丽卡#8226;圭迪(Federica Guidi)表示,意大利政府“无权干涉”此类交易,尤其是中国化工的收购将让倍耐力“更具竞争力”。It is all part and parcel of a much broader Sino-Italian love affair which has seen Chinese investors take stakes in half a dozen prominent Italian companies, including the one that controls the country’s electricity grid and gas distribution. Italy, meanwhile, was one of the first European countries to sign up to the Beijing-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, despite strenuous objections from Washington.这笔收购交易是更广泛的“中意恋曲”的一个重要部分,中国投资者已投资入股6家著名的意大利公司,其中一家公司控制着意大利的电网和天然气分销系统。同时,意大利是申请加入北京牵头的亚洲基础设施投资(Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank,简称“亚投行”)的首批欧洲国家之一,尽管华盛顿对该强烈反对。“The Italian public and government have been quite open to Chinese investment,” Mr Ren said. “We#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;feel grateful for the Italian government’s remarks regarding this transaction.”任建新说:“意大利的民众和政府已对中国投资敞开怀抱。我们……非常感谢意大利政府对此次收购交易的立场。”Additional reporting by Wan Li and Rachel Sanderson万丽、雷切尔#8226;桑德森(Rachel Sanderson)补充报道 /201504/367566

  The fast-food chain Burger King will largely discontinue its so-called Satisfries after the low-calorie french-fry alternative failed to win over consumers.低卡路里炸薯条迟迟未能赢得消费者的芳心,快餐连锁店汉堡王(Burger King)因此将大规模停售低脂薯条(Satisfries)。Poor sales for the crinkle-cut variety, which promised 40% less fat and 30% fewer calories than their classic cousins, did them in, according to a Bloomberg report. About two-thirds of the company’s stores in the U.S. and Canada are aly phasing out the product.据彭社(Bloomberg)报道,低迷的销量是这款食品被放弃的主要原因。低脂薯条是波纹薯条的一种,但其所含脂肪比经典款低40%,卡路里也减少了30%。在美国和加拿大,汉堡王有三分之二的门店正在逐步停止销售这款产品。Satisfries were launched with much fanfare in September as a way to boost the company’s sales and attract diners who preferred to eat healthier options. The company characterized it as “one of the biggest fast food launches,” a particularly bold claim as peers like McDonald’s and Wendy’s fiercely compete by rolling out new twists on classic products such as burgers with jalapeno peppers or pretzel buns. (The chains are also competing in less savory ways.)去年九月份,为了刺激销售和吸引更注重健康饮食的消费者,汉堡王大张旗鼓推出了低脂薯条。公司将其描述为“规模最大的快餐产品上市”,这是非常大胆的言论,因为竞争对手麦当劳(McDonald’s)和温蒂汉堡(Wendy’s)也纷纷在经典食品上推出新花样,例如加入墨西哥辣椒的汉堡和贝索餐包等。(这些连锁店也在用好吃之外的方式竞争。)The fry saga is hardly over for the company, though. On Tuesday, the company announced the revival of its Chicken Fries, which first launched in 2005.但汉堡王的薯条冒险远未结束。周二,汉堡王宣布重新推出“炸鸡条”(Chicken Fries),该产品曾于2005年首次上市。 /201408/323638



  Australia is tightening scrutiny of foreign ownership in agriculture and real estate to combat public fears that Chinese investment is forcing up house prices and could potentially undermine the country’s food security.澳大利亚正在收紧对外国人持有农业地产和房地产的审查,以缓解公众的担忧——来自中国的投资正在推升房价,还有可能危害该国粮食安全。From next month, purchases by foreign investors of agricultural land worth more than Am (US.6m) will be subject to regulatory approval from Australia’s Foreign investment Review Board. The previous threshold was A0m.从下个月开始,外国投资者在购买价值超过1500万澳元(合1160万美元)的农业地产时,将需要得到澳大利亚外国投资审查委员会(Foreign Investment Review Board)的批准。在此之前,免审上限是2.4亿澳元。The Australian tax office will undertake a stock take of agricultural land ownership by foreign owners, and new rules on foreign investment in residential real estate will be outlined in “coming weeks”, according to Canberra.澳大利亚政府称,澳大利亚税务办公室将开始盘点外国业主持有的农业地产。此外,澳大利亚政府还会在“随后几周”公布有关外国人投资住宅地产的新规定草案。“Foreign investment is important to us, but it’s got to be investment that serves our national interests,” said Tony Abbott, Australia’s prime minister.澳大利亚总理托尼#8226;阿特(Tony Abbott)表示:“外商投资对我们十分重要,不过这些投资必须符合我们的国家利益。”The ruling Liberal-National coalition has previously said that Australia was open to foreign investment, and last year signed trade deals with China, Japan and South Korea.在此之前,执政的自由党-国家党联盟(Liberal-National Coalition)曾表示澳大利亚对外商投资持开放态度。去年,澳大利亚曾与中国、日本和韩国签署贸易协议。However, the agricultural sector is a sensitive issue among the National party’s rural base — a fact underlined when the government in 2013 blocked a A.4bn takeover of GrainCorp by US company Archer Daniels Midland.然而,对于国家党(National)的农村票仓来说,农业部门却是个十分敏感的问题。2013年,澳大利亚政府曾阻止美国ADM公司(Archer Daniels Midland)以34亿澳元收购GrainCorp的交易,农业问题的敏感性由此可见一斑。Foreign ownership of agricultural land was a hot topic prior to the 2013 election, with a Vote Compass Survey by state broadcaster A finding that three-quarters of people wanted more restrictions on land sales.在2013年大选之前,外商持有农业地产曾是一个热门话题。当时,澳大利亚国家电视台澳大利亚广播公司(A)开展的“投票指南调查”(Vote Compass Survey)曾显示,四分之三的澳大利亚人希望加强对土地销售的限制。A Lowy Institute poll last year found that 56 per cent of people thought there was too much Chinese investment in Australia, compared with 37 per cent who said it was the right amount.去年,罗维国际政策学院(Lowy Institute)的一项调查发现,56%的澳大利亚人认为中国对澳大利亚的投资太多了,相比之下认为这一投资规模合适的只有37%。Between 2006 and 2012 Chinese investors sank Abn into Australian agricultural businesses, which amounted to 2 per cent of total Chinese investment in the country.在2006年到2012年之间,中国投资者向澳大利亚农业企业投入了10亿澳元,占中国对澳大利亚总投资的2%。This compared with A.8bn investment in mining, according to a report, titled Demystifying Chinese Investment in Australian Agribusiness, compiled by KPMG and Sydney University.根据毕马威(KPMG)和悉尼大学编制的一份名为《解密中国对澳农业投资》(Demystifying Chinese Investment in Australian Agribusiness)的报告,与上述数据相比,中国对采矿业的投资为368亿澳元。But agreement on a trade deal between China and Australia in November has heightened interest in Australia’s agricultural sector. Chinese group New Hope is investing up to 0m in Australian dairy farms and processing plants as part of a deal with Freedom Foods, a company listed on the Australian Stock Exchange.不过,去年11月中国与澳大利亚签署的一份贸易协议,提高了中国投资者对澳大利亚农业部门的兴趣。按照与自由食品(Freedom Foods)达成的协议,中国集团新希望(New Hope)正投资5亿美元于澳大利亚奶牛场和乳品加工厂。自由食品是一家澳大利亚券交易所(Australian Stock Exchange)的上市企业。Chinese state companies have also set up the Beijing Australia Agricultural Resource Cooperative Development Fund, a bn fund to invest in agricultural opportunities.此外,中国国有企业还设立了规模为30亿美元的京澳农业资源合作开发基金(Beijing Australia Agricultural Resource Cooperative Development Fund),以抓住农业方面的投资机遇。But there are concerns that scrutiny of foreign deals is insufficient.不过有的人担心,仅仅审查与外商的协议是不够的。Similar concerns have been expressed about a lack of proper scrutiny of foreign investment in real estate, which has been cited by some as a factor in fast-rising house prices in Sydney and Melbourne. A parliamentary inquiry recently recommended the creation of a new database of foreign buyers and the introduction of a fee on processing purchases.除此以外,对于澳大利亚缺乏对外商投资房地产的适当审查程序,也有人表示了类似担忧。有人认为,外商投资是导致悉尼和墨尔本房价迅速攀升的原因之一。最近,澳大利亚议会一项调查结果建议,澳大利亚政府设立一个有关外国买家的新数据库,并征收购房手续费。Credit Suisse said last year that Chinese investors and newly arrived immigrants had spent Abn on Australian property over seven years. The bank forecast they would spent an extra Abn in the next seven years.去年,瑞士信贷(Credit Suisse)表示,在7年时间里,中国投资者和新抵达移民向澳大利亚房地产投资了240亿澳元。该行预计在今后7年中,他们还会再投资440亿澳元。 /201502/359847





  Some cities have a litter problem, some suffer from high crime rates and others might have a lack of affordable housing. And then you have Dubai, which for the last several years has been facing the unusual problem of high end sports cars being abandoned and left to gather thick layers of dust at airport car parks and on the roadside across the city.有的城市有垃圾问题,有的城市犯罪率高,还有一些城市居民买不起住房。那么让我们看看迪拜这个城市吧,在过去的几年中它所面临的问题很不同寻常:在机场的停车场以及整个城市的马路边上,都停着很多被遗弃的高级跑车,上面积满了厚厚的灰尘。Thousands of the finest automobiles ever made are now being abandoned every year since Dubai’s financial meltdown, left by expatriates and locals alike who flee in a hurry because they face crippling debts.自从迪拜金融危机之后,每年都有上千辆高级轿车被荒弃,移民过来的人及部分当地人负债累累、弃车逃走。With big loans to repay to the banks (unpaid debt or even bouncing a cheque is a criminal offence in Dubai), the panicked car owners make their way to the airport at top speeds and leave their vehicles in the car park, hopping on the next flight out of there, never to return.因负有高额贷款(欠债甚至拒付票在迪拜都会造成刑事犯罪),车主们以最快的速度开车到机场、把车子丢在停车场处,然后搭乘离开迪拜的最快航班落荒而逃。Ferraris, Porsches, BMWs, Mercedes are regularly abandoned at the car park of Dubai International Airport, some with loan documents and apology notes simply left on the windscreen.法拉利、保时捷、宝马、梅赛德斯……这些豪车经常被遗弃在迪拜国际机场的停车场处,车主在车里留下了贷款文件、在挡风玻璃处草草留下了道歉字条。Last year, a Ferrari Enzo, one of only four hundred manufactured, was seized by police having spent several months in a car park collecting dust. The million dollar motor went on sale at auction alongside other Ferraris, Porsches, Range Rovers and Mercedes plucked from the roadside.去年有一辆法拉利恩佐跑车被警察扣下,这辆车在机场已经积尘好几个月了。法拉利恩佐跑车全世界限量仅生产400辆,价值百万美元,而如今却只能和其他的法拉利、保时捷、路虎揽胜、梅赛德斯等路边荒弃的车子一起被拍卖出去。Residents complain about the unsightly vehicles hogging parking spaces at the airport and sitting slumped outside their fancy yacht clubs– it’s like, so not a good look. On the plus side, discount Ferraris for everyone!居民对这些落满了灰尘的不雅豪车怨声载道,它们停在机场的停车场、与他们的豪华游艇俱乐部格格不入,简直太难看了!然而另一方面看,对每个人来说打折的法拉利岂不是一种福利! /201405/302127

  The perils of forecasting the Chinese agricultural market came to the fore earlier this month when the US Department of Agriculture slashed its predictions for Chinese corn imports.本月早些时候,对中国农产品市场的风险预测得到了验,美国农业部(USDA)大幅下调了其对中国玉米进口的预测。Last year, the USDA reckoned China was set to become the largest importer of grain. But mounting evidence of rising inventories and falling demand triggered a rethink and it has dramatically cut its forecasts. Last year’s long-term import forecast of 22m tonnes for 2023/24 has been reduced to just 6.5m.去年,美国农业部估计,中国将成为全球最大玉米进口国。但越来越多的据显示,中国库存增加和需求下滑,促使美国农业部改变想法,并大幅下调了其预测。去年,美国农业部对2023/24年度中国玉米进口的长期预测为2200万吨,如今已被下调至区区650万吨。“The whole picture has really changed over the past 18 months or so,” said Fred Gale, senior economist at the USDA’s economic research service.美国农业部经济研究局高级经济学家弗雷德#8226;盖尔(Fred Gale)表示:“过去18个月左右,整体状况确实发生了变化。”Stronger demand for overseas, especially US, corn in 2011 and 2012, saw analysts both inside and outside China predict the country would become a net importer of the grain, which is mainly used for livestock and poultry feed and processed foods.2011年和2012年中国对海外(特别是美国)玉米的需求上升,使得中国国内外分析人士都预测,中国将成为玉米净进口国。玉米主要用做牲畜和家禽饲料以及加工食品。So what happened?那么发生了什么?After record crops in 2012 and 2013, and an abrupt drop off in consumption, China has found itself with a huge corn stockpile.在2012年和2013年产量创下纪录后,消费突然下滑,中国发现本国出现大量玉米库存。“It could take years for China to dispose of such large surpluses,” says the USDA in its latest report on the country’s agricultural imports.美国农业部在有关中国农产品进口的最新报告中称:“中国可能需要数年来消化如此大规模的过剩库存。”Apart from the favourable weather, the story behind the rise in Chinese inventories will be familiar to traders in sugar and cotton. Beijing’s farmer support policies mean a higher support price for corn compared with international prices. Not only does it encourage domestic production but also purchases of cheap imports as global grain prices plunged.除了气候条件有利之外,中国玉米库存上升的内情与糖和棉花一样,糖和棉花贸易商对此相当熟悉。中国农业补贴政策意味着,与国际价格相比,中国玉米价格更高。这不仅鼓励了国内生产,还促使中国在全球粮价下挫之际购买廉价进口玉米。Reserves also ballooned as authorities bought domestic corn to support the market during the 2013/14 crop year, raising official corn stocks to 100m tonnes, about half of the country’s annual consumption.2013/14作物年度期间,随着中国政府购买国产玉米撑玉米市场,玉米储备也随之增加。官方玉米库存升至1亿吨,约占中国年度消费量的一半。Another factor has been a surge in Chinese imports of sorghum and barley, a corn substitute, says Mr Gale. Sorghum and barley — which have no import as unlike other grains — jumped to 11.5m tonnes in the 2014/15 crop year from 1.7m in 2010/11, according to USDA data.盖尔表示,另一个因素是中国高粱和大麦(都是玉米替代品)的进口飙升。根据美国农业部的数据,2014/15作物年度,高粱和大麦(与其他粮食不同,没有进口配额限制)进口量从2010/11年度的170万吨飙升至1150万吨。Although authorities placed 63m tonnes of corn through auctions to try to reduce its stockpile, only 25m tonnes were purchased, says the USDA. In spite of this, Beijing has announced that it would buy corn from the 2014 harvest to support prices. Current stock levels for corn are at a 14-year high.美国农业部表示,尽管中国政府为减少库存拍卖6300万吨玉米,但成交量只有2500万吨。即便如此,中国政府仍宣布将收购2014年收获的玉米,以撑价格。目前的玉米库存为14年以来的高点。Even when China does eventually turn to imports, it is likely to try to keep this to the minimum. Government officials view agricultural imports as unavoidable but also appear to distrust international markets, according to the USDA report.尽管中国最终仍会转向玉米进口,但中国可能会努力将进口量降至最低。根据美国农业部的报告,中国政府官员将农产品进口视为不可避免之举,但似乎不相信国际市场。“The food security strategy is strongly influenced by the perceived dominance of imports and foreign companies in China’s soyabean industry, which has been described as a potential threat to the country’s soyabean supply,” it says.报告称:“在中国大豆行业,进口产品以及外资企业明显占主导地位,这强烈影响着食品安全战略,这些被视为中国大豆供应的潜在威胁。”This stance helps explain China’s actions over food trade over the past few years. First, it has diversified food import sources in order to give the country’s importers greater price negotiating power as well as reduce risks from a potential trade embargo. For example, China’s authorities opened up its market to corn from Argentina and Ukraine in 2012 as imports from the US began increasing.这种态度有助于解释过去几年中国在食品贸易方面的举措。为了赋予中国进口商更大的价格谈判权,同时降低可能的贸易禁运的风险,中国对食品进口来源实现了多样化。例如,2012年,随着来自美国的进口玉米的增加,中国政府向产自阿根廷和乌克兰的玉米开放了市场。Second, China is looking to gain greater control over its agricultural import supply chains through overseas investments. The move by COFCO — or China National Cereals, Oil and Foodstuffs Corp — where the state-owned group took a stake in an agriculture joint venture with Noble Group, and separately purchased a controlling stake in Dutch agricultural trading house Nidera, seems to follow that strategy.其次,中国指望通过海外投资获得对其农产品进口供应链获得更大控制。国有企业中粮(COFCO)与来宝集团(Noble Group)组建了一家农业合资公司,另外还购入荷兰农产品贸易集团Nidera的控股权,这些举措似乎是在遵循上述战略。A rise in overseas investments will offer a larger share of profits for Chinese companies, establish reliable supplies for the domestic market, and gain more influence over international prices, says the report.报告称,扩大海外投资将让中国企业获得更多利润、为国内市场取得可靠供应,并对国际价格施加更大影响。 /201503/361991

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