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2020年01月29日 06:58:50|来源:国际在线|编辑:时空中文
The Kurds have never been as influential in the Middle East as they are today. They hold the balance of power in Iraq and Syria, and are in the midst of an insurrection in Turkey. But this Kurdish awakening is different from previous ones in Iraq in the 1970s or Turkey in the 1990s. Powers great and small have to contend with Kurdish demands as never before. 库尔德人在中东的影响力从来没有像今天这样大。在伊拉克和叙利亚,他们是维持平衡状态的关键力量;在土耳其,他们发起反叛运动。但是,库尔德人的此次觉醒不同于以往的两次——上世纪70年代在伊拉克的那次、以及上世纪90年代在土耳其的那次。大大小小的势力要挑战库尔德人的诉求,从未像现在这样艰难The US finds itself reluctantly drawn into this Kurdish denouement; it needs the Kurds as much as it needs the Turks in its efforts to defeat Isis, the jihadi group. Yet America’s primary ally in Syria, the Kurdish Democratic Union party (PYD), is being bombarded by its longstanding Nato ally, Turkey. The PYD has proven itself to be the most, if not the only, effective force against Isis; almost all the territory the jihadis have lost since conquering parts of Iraq and Syria in 2014 has been to PYD militias working in tandem with the US air force. The Turks consider the PYD, which is intimately linked to the Turkish Kurdistan Workersparty (PKK), as nothing more than a terrorist organisation. 美国发现自己被动卷入了这场库尔德大戏。在努力击败圣战者组织“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国ISIS)的过程中,美国像需要土耳其人那样需要库尔德人。然而,美国在叙利亚的主要盟友——库尔德民主联盟PYD),遭到了美国在北Nato)中的长期盟友土耳其的连续轰炸。库尔德民主联盟党事实上已经是打击ISIS最有效(甚至可能是唯一有效)的力量;ISIS014年占领伊拉克和叙利亚部分区域以来丢失的领土,几乎全都是失给了库尔德民主联盟党和美国空军的联合行动。土耳其人认为,库尔德民主联盟党无非是一个恐怖组织。库尔德民主联盟党与土耳其的库尔德工人PKK)有密切联系While the US cannot satisfy all parties, the current conundrum also offers opportunities to Washington to push for a grand bargain between Turkey on the one hand and the Syrian and Turkish Kurds on the other that would benefit all sides involved in the region, as well as the US and its struggle against Isis. 尽管美国不可能满足所有各方的要求,但当前困局也为华盛顿提供了机会,可以努力去撮合土耳其与叙利亚和土耳其库尔德人之间达成一笔重大交易。该交易将惠及中东所有相关方,以及美国和美国打击ISIS的战情There is also a sense of urgency as Turkey’s president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, mired in his own controversial effort to transform the Turkish republic from a parliamentary system into a presidential one that would give him wide if not unlimited powers, engages in a dangerous game of brinkmanship. 考虑到土耳其总统雷杰普吠伊普埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)正在玩一场危险的边缘政策游戏,此举也具有一种紧迫感。埃尔多安自己的一种引发争议的尝试眼下也正陷于胶着——他正推动把土耳其共和国由议会制转变为总统制,从而为自己谋取更大(甚至可能是不受限制)的权力He has raised the political ante not just by shelling PYD positions in Syria shells are designed to hurt the PYD as much as disrupt the PYD-American relationship but also attributing a recent terrorist attack in Ankara to the PYD, despite the latter’s denials and the rest of the world’s disbelief. Turkey does not want to differentiate between the PKK and the PYD, despite the efforts of PYD leader Salih Muslim to convince the Turks that the group has no design on Turkish territory and, on the contrary, seeks to co-operate with Ankara. 他已提高了政治赌注,不仅炮击叙利亚境内的库尔德民主联盟党阵地(其目的不仅在于减损库尔德民主联盟党的力量,还在于破坏该党和美国之间的关系),还把库尔德民主联盟党说成是不久前发生在安卡拉的一次恐怖袭击的幕后黑手(尽管该党矢口否认,世界其他地区也不相信)。土耳其非要视库尔德工人党和库尔德民主联盟党为一丘之貉——尽管库尔德民主联盟党领袖萨利赫穆斯利姆(Salih Muslim)努力让土耳其人相信,该党不仅不想染指土耳其领土,相反还寻求与土耳其政府合作What worries Mr Erdogan is that in three of the countries with sizeable Kurdish minorities Turkey, Iraq and Syria the Kurds are on the move. Only in Iran has the regimebeen more or less successful in holding down overt manifestations of Kurdish nationalism, and then only through repression. 令埃尔多安感到担忧的是,在土耳其、伊拉克和叙利亚这三个人口占少数的库尔德人达到相当数量的国家里,库尔德人都在活跃起来。唯有在伊拉克,当局差不多成功地压制住了库尔德民族主义的公开彰显,但这还是靠的镇压Iraqi Kurds, thanks to American intervention, have now established an internationally recognised autonomous federal zone in northern Iraq. Ankara has excellent relations with the leadership of the Kurdistan Regional Government, KRG, and is its single-most important trading partner. The KRG remains an important, if incomplete, symbol of Kurdish self-determination. 得益于美国的干预,伊拉克的库尔德人如今在伊拉克北部建立了一块得到国际承认的联邦自治区。土耳其政府与库尔德地区政府(KRG)的领导人之间保持着融洽的关系,并是后者最重要的单一贸易伙伴。库尔德地区政府仍是库尔德民族自决的一个重要(虽然可能不充分)的标志Turkish Kurds have either been in a state of insurrection or resolute political activism since the 1990s. That has been down to the PKK’s prowess and, more recently, because the main Kurdish political party, the People’s Democratic party, or HDP, performed extremely well and won support from a broad range of liberal Turks in the first of two national elections in 2015. 自上世纪90年代以来,土耳其库尔德人不是处于反叛状态,就是在开展坚决的政治行动。一直以来这要归因于库尔德工人党的强大,近期而言,则也是因为主要的亲库尔德派政党人民民主HDP)015年两场大选中的第一场表现优异,并赢得了土耳其自由派人士的广泛持The Kurdish issue has come to dominate Turkey’s politics. In the process, it has also transformed itself from a primarily rural to an urban and far more sophisticated movement. 库尔德人问题已成为主导土耳其政治的一个议题。在这个过程中,它已逐渐地由一个主要局限在农村地区的问题,转变成为一场立足都市的、比以往复杂得多的运动Mr Erdogan fears that out of the ashes of the Syrian civil war, a new Syrian-Kurdish KRG-like state will arise. Turkey could then face two autonomous Kurdish neighbours on its southern border. This may lead Turkey’s Kurds to seek the same. To his credit, Mr Erdogan had begun peace negotiations with the PKK. However, he repudiated the agreement (which had been signed by his lieutenants) when the PKK rejected his demand that it force the PYD to abandon its quest in northern Syria. 埃尔多安担心,从叙利亚内战的灰烬中,将走出一个新的、类似库尔德地区政府的叙利亚库尔德国家。届时,土耳其在南部可能就要与两个库尔德人自治政府接壤了。这或许会推动土耳其的库尔德人追求同等地位。值得称道的是,埃尔多安曾经已经开启与库尔德工人党的和谈。然而,当库尔德工人党拒绝了埃尔多安提出的由该党迫使库尔德民主联盟党放弃在叙利亚北部行动的要求时,他拒绝了(他的手下签署的)协议The present situation is unstable and could spin out of control, especially with Mr Erdogan calling on the US to choose between Turkey and the PYD. There is, however, a win-win bargain that the US could broker. In exchange for a ceasefire and withdrawal of PKK combatants from Turkey into northern Iraq and Syria, Turkey would promise not to interfere in Syrian Kurdish territories. 当前局势并不稳定,还可能会发生失控,尤其是考虑到埃尔多安正呼吁美国在土耳其和库尔德民主联盟党之间做出选择。然而,美国有可能促成一项双赢协议。为换取停火和库尔德工人党武装撤出土耳其、进入到伊拉克和叙利亚北部,土耳其可承诺不对叙利亚的库尔德人所占领土进行干预The advantages of this deal would include a cessation of the hostilities in Turkey that have left parts of Kurdish areas as devastated as Syrian cities, and claimed the lives of hundreds of civilians and more than 300 security personnel. A deal would also allow the PYD and the US to focus on Isis, while also strengthening the Syrian Kurdsclaim for an equitable post-civil war outcome. 这一协议的好处将包括,结束土耳其境内的敌对状态,这种敌对已使得部分库尔德人区域像叙利亚城市那样满目疮痍,数千平民和00名安保人员丧生。该协议也将让库尔德民主联盟党和美国能够专心对付ISIS,同时也将让叙利亚库尔德人要求在内战后实现公平结果的主张更加有力。来 /201603/429548

Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev has said strains between Russia and the West have pushed the world ;into a new cold war;.近日,俄罗斯总理梅德韦杰夫表示,俄罗斯和西方之间的紧张关系会将世界推至“新冷战格局”;On an almost daily basis, we are being described the worst threat - be it to Nato as a whole, or to Europe, America or other countries,; Mr Medvedev said.梅德韦杰夫说道:“几乎每一天,我们都被描述成是最大的威胁--不只是对整个北约来说,还是对欧洲、对美国或是对其他国家。”He cited Nato chief Jens Stoltenbergs speeches and films depicting Russia starting a nuclear war.梅德韦杰夫引用北约秘书长延斯·斯托尔滕贝格的演讲内容以及描述俄罗斯将开启核武器战争的一些电影。The Cold War was a period of ideological confrontation between the former Soviet Union and Western countries. It began after World War Two and ended with the collapse of the Soviet-led communist camp in the 1989. The 45 years of tension were marked by espionage and proxy wars involving client states. The Nato alliance was established in 1949 to protect Western countries.冷战是指前苏联和西方国家意识形态对抗的这一时期。它开始于二战结束之时,随着1989年以苏联为首的共产主义阵营解体结束。持5年的紧张局势中充满了间谍活动和附庸国参与的代理人战争。北约成立于1949年,用于维护西方各国利益。Russia has recently come under strong criticism over its air strikes in support of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and over its role in neighbouring Ukraine, which culminated with the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula in 2014.最近一段时间,俄罗斯因利用空袭来持叙利亚总统阿萨德,以及014年吞并邻国乌克兰的克里米亚半岛而广受批评。In an interview with the B at the same Munich conference, Mr Stoltenberg said Russia had changed borders by force and had become more assertive - and that Nato had to be able to respond to threats.在慕尼黑会议的一次采访中,斯托尔滕贝格表示,俄罗斯通过武力改变了疆土边界,也变得越来越武断,北约不得不对这些威胁有所防备;We are not in a cold-war situation, but also not in the partnership that we established at the end of the Cold War,; Mr Stoltenberg said. Nato, he said, did not want an escalation, but enhanced political dialogue with Russia.斯托尔滕贝格说:“我们并未处于冷战的局面当中,现在我们也不是冷战结束时的伙伴关系。”他还表示,北约并不想让这种紧张关系升级,而是希望能促进与俄罗斯的政治对话。来 /201602/426674

China and the ed States on last Thursday reaffirmed their joint commitment to global nuclear security and pledged to continue cooperation in this area beyond the Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) process.中国和美国在上周四的核安全峰会进程中,重申了两国的核安全合作联合声明,并承诺将在这一领域继续合作。In a joint statement released as Chinese President Xi Jinping and US President Barack Obama met on the sidelines of the fourth NSS, the two countries declared their ;commitment to working together to foster a peaceful and stable international environment by reducing the threat of nuclear terrorism and striving for a more inclusive, coordinated, sustainable and robust global nuclear security architecture for the common benefit and security of all.;中国国家主席习近平和美国国家总统巴拉克·奥巴马在会见出席核安全峰会中提出了这一联合声明,两国领导人宣布:“两国将致力于通过减少核恐怖主义威胁,营造和平稳定的国际环境,并使全球核安全体系更为包容、协调、可持续、强有力,以实现共赢和共同安全。”Nuclear security cooperation has become a bright spot in the building of a new type of major-country relations between the worlds largest developing and developed countries. In February, the two sides carried out the inaugural round of bilateral discussions on nuclear security in Stockholm, Sweden.核安全合作已成为世界上最大的发展中国家和最大的发达国家之间的一个重大国家关系的新亮点今年二月,两国在瑞典斯德哥尔进行了核安全问题的双边讨论;We plan to continue this dialogue on an annual basis, so as to intensify our cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism and continue advancing Nuclear Security Summit goals,; said the joint statement.联合声明中写道:“中美两国计划在年度基础上继续进行这一对话,以加强我们的合作,防止核恐怖主义,并继续推进核安全峰会的目标。”In a more recent example, a nuclear security center of excellence (COE) jointly financed and built by the Chinese and US governments was inaugurated in suburban Beijing on March 18. It is the largest, best equipped and most advanced facility of its kind in the Asia-Pacific region.最近的一项相关举措就是,由中美两国政府共同出资建造的核安保示范中心于38日在北京郊区举行开幕仪式。它是亚太地区占地最大、装备最精良、设备最先进的示范中心。The COE, said the statement, ;is a world-class venue to meet Chinas domestic nuclear security training requirements, as well as a forum for bilateral and regional best practice exchanges, and a venue for demonstrating advanced technologies related to nuclear security.;核安保示范中心在声明中表示:这是一个世界级的场地,以满足中国的国内核安全培训的要求,此外还有一个用于双边和区域的最佳实践交流的论坛,以及一个展示与核安全相关的先进技术的场地。来 /201604/435974

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