邯郸市中心人民医院治疗不能怀孕预约指南

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月19日 02:13:23
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BEIJING — Yahoo Inc. is closing its Beijing research and development center and leaving China in a new cost-cutting move.北京——作为削减成本的新措施,雅虎公司将关闭其在北京的研发中心,全面撤出中国。The company said Thursday the Beijing office#39;s functions would be consolidated in other locations. It gave no details of how many people would lose their jobs but said they would be ;treated with respect and fairness.;公司周四表示,北京办事处的职能将转移到其他地方及部门。公司对有多少人将失去工作没有提供细节,但表示这些人将“得到有尊严及公平的对待”。The Sunnyvale, California-based company has cut jobs elsewhere in a sweeping corporate overhaul as it tries to catch up with Internet users who have shifted to using smartphones and tablets instead of laptop and desktop computers.这家总部位于加利福尼亚州森尼维尔的公司正在进行大规模企业整改,已经在其他地方裁掉大批员工,公司试图追赶互联网用户上网方式的改变,许多用户已转向使用智能手机和平板电脑上网,而不是笔记本电脑和台式电脑。Yahoo turned over control of its China operations to its partner Alibaba Group in 2005 as part of a corporate tie-up. Yahoo stopped offering services in China in 2013.作为企业结盟的一部分,雅虎曾在2005年将自己中国业务的控制权移交给其合作伙伴阿里巴巴集团。雅虎于2013年停止了向中国提供务。Yahoo#39;s profit for the quarter ending in December fell 52 percent from a year earlier while revenue dipped 1 percent.雅虎的利润在截止去年12月的上个季度与去年同期相比下降了52%,营业收入下降了1%。 /201503/365688

The Chinese economy continued to slow in April, prompting predictions of more fiscal and monetary stimulus from Beijing, much of which is likely to boost its booming stock market.中国经济在4月继续放缓,促使人们预测北京方面将出台更多财政和货币刺激措施,而这些措施有很大一部分很可能推高处于牛市中的股市。Fixed asset investment, a key driver of the economy, expanded by 12 per cent in the first four months of the year from a year earlier, the slowest pace since 2000 and down from 13.5 per cent in the first quarter.中国经济的关键驱动力——固定资产投资在今年头四个月同比扩张12%,这是自2000年以来最慢的步伐,而且低于第一季度13.5%的同比增幅。That was driven largely by sliding investment and construction in the crucial real estate sector, which is suffering from oversupply and tepid demand.这在很大程度上可归因于重要的房地产行业投资和建设不断下滑,该行业正遭遇供应过剩和需求乏力。Overall property investment in the country grew 6 per cent in the first four months from a year earlier, a sharp deceleration from 8.5 per cent growth in the first quarter and the slowest pace since May 2009.中国的总体房地产投资在今年头四个月同比增长6%,相比第一季度的8.5%出现急剧减速,而且是自2009年5月以来最慢的增速。Growth in retail sales came in at 10 per cent in April from a year earlier, down slightly from 10.2 per cent in March but the weakest monthly ing in nine years.4月份社会消费品零售总额同比增长10%,仅略低于3月的10.2%,但却是9年来最疲弱的月度同比增幅。China is almost certain to grow at its slowest pace in 25 years this year and the government will struggle to meet its aly lowered target of “around 7 per cent” expansion.今年中国几乎可以肯定将录得25年以来最慢的经济增长,政府要达到其已经下调的“7%左右”的增长目标将有难度。“Today’s activity data suggest that the momentum of growth during the first month of the second quarter could have slowed further to below 7 per cent,” said Liu Ligang, economist at ANZ bank. “Thus, more growth stabilisation policies could be expected to roll out.”“今日发布的经济活动数据似乎表明,第二季度第一个月的增长势头可能进一步放缓至7%以下,”澳新(ANZ bank)经济学家刘利刚表示。“因此,可以预期会有更多的稳增长政策出台。”On Sunday China cut benchmark interest rates for the third time in six months to shore up flagging activity.上周日,中国在六个月内第三次下调基准利率,以提振疲弱的经济活动。The central bank has also lowered the proportion of deposits banks must hold in reserve (known as the reserve ratio requirement) twice since the start of the year, including a 100-basis-point cut last month that was the biggest since the height of the financial crisis in 2008.自年初以来,中国央行还两次下调了存款准备金率,包括上月的100个基点下调,那是自2008年金融危机最严重时期以来的最大幅度“降准”。Most analysts expect Beijing to continue cutting interest rates and the RRR in the coming months.多数分析师预计,北京将在未来几个月继续降息和下调存款准备金率。“We expect sequential growth momentum to improve in the coming months, but given the deep-rooted challenges such as the severe overcapacity problem in upstream industries, any improvement will still be rather fragile,” said Yang Zhao, an economist at Nomura. “Hence, we expect policy to remain accommodative.”“我们预计,环比增长势头将在接下来的几个月出现起色,但考虑到根深蒂固的挑战,比如上游产业产能严重过剩的问题,任何好转都仍将是相当脆弱的,”野村券(Nomura)经济学家赵扬表示。“因此,我们预计政策将保持宽松。”While the government has tried to target its stimulus policies to benefit the economy and keep construction going across the country, much of the fresh liquidity has found its way into the booming stock market, helping the benchmark index to double in the past year.虽然政府一直试图出台针对性的刺激政策,以求惠及经济,扶持全国各地的建设活动,但相当大一部分新的流动性进入了不断上涨的境内股市,推动基准股指在过去一年翻倍。After the data release yesterday, the Shanghai Composite Index fell 0.58 per cent after rising 1.6 per cent on Tuesday.昨日数据公布后,上综指(Shanghai Composite Index)下跌0.58%,周二该指数上涨1.6%。Japan’s Nikkei stock index erased early losses to end up 0.7 per cent on hopes of fresh Chinese stimulus.受中国出台新刺激措施的希望鼓舞,日本的日经股指(Nikkei stock index)昨日止跌转涨,收盘上升0.7%。On the bright side, some analysts highlighted data suggesting the year-long slump in demand for Chinese real estate could be coming to an end.从光明的一面看,一些分析师强调了一些似乎表明持续一年的中国房地产需求低迷可能即将结束的数据。For example, the floor area of property sold in the first four months of the year fell 4.8 per cent from a year earlier, an improvement on the 9.2 per cent year-on-year decline in the first quarter.例如,今年头四个月的商品房销售面积同比下降4.8%,相比第一季度9.2%的同比降幅有所好转。 /201505/375057

  Can big businesses be built on the idea of giving away software free of charge?能否靠免费分发软件来建立大企业?That paradox has stumped some of Silicon Valley’s smartest investors since “open source” software broke on to the tech scene, with the rise of the Linux operating system 15 years ago.自15年前Linux操作系统崛起、“开放源代码”(open source,简称:开源)软件打破科技行业格局以来,这种看似自相矛盾的想法已经难倒了硅谷(Silicon Valley)的一些最聪明的投资者。Red Hat, which grew by selling maintenance and support to companies that used Linux, is now worth nearly bn. But other hopefuls fell by the wayside — even as open-source came to infiltrate many parts of the IT world, thanks to projects such as Linux and the Apache software used in most web servers.靠向使用Linux的企业出售维护和持务而发家的红帽公司(Red Hat),如今的市值已接近140亿美元。但其他怀揣这种希望的公司却折戟沉沙,尽管开源软件已渗透到IT界的多个方面(这种渗透得益于在网页务器上广泛应用的Linux和Apache等项目)。Now, investors are lining up to have another go, as a new breed of open source companies report rising revenues and plan initial public offerings. And this time, they think they have better ways of turning the popularity of open source into profits.如今,随着新一类开源软件公司纷纷报出不断增长的收入并筹划首次公开发行(IPO),投资者正排着队准备再次碰碰运气。这一次,他们自认为有更好的办法将开源软件的人气转化为利润。Open source software companies rely on networks of volunteer developers to help write their code and build an initial user base. They then aim to turn users into customers, giving the software away free while selling support services or add-ons.开源软件公司依赖志愿开发者圈子来帮助它们编写代码和建立最初的用户群。它们接下来的目标是把用户转化为客户,在免费分发软件的同时出售持务或其他附加务。Unfortunately for the upstarts, many big tech companies have co-opted open source themselves, to fill gaps in their own technology — and have added support for the code to their own business plans.对初创公司来说遗憾的是,很多大型科技公司已自己新上马了开源项目,来填补自身技术上的空白,并且已把开源代码持务加入到它们自己的商业计划中。Even Oracle and Microsoft, the most directly threatened by free software, have adjusted their strategies to accommodate aspects of open source.即便是受自由软件直接威胁最大的甲骨文(Oracle)和微软(Microsoft),也已调整自身战略,以适应开源技术的各个方面。However, while the first wave of open source relied on making free versions of existing programs without adding much new, Mike Volpi, a partner at venture capital firm Index Ventures says new approaches are emerging with the growth of cloud computing and “big data” analysis. He says that some developments in open source software are not being matched in the traditional world of commercial code.不过,第一波开源浪潮依赖于生成既有程序的免费版本而不增添太多新东西,而据风投公司Index Ventures的合伙人米凯#8226;沃尔皮(Mike Volpi)表示,随着云计算和“大数据”分析的发展,新的做法正不断涌现出来。他说,开源软件领域的一些新生事物在传统的收费软件界找不到对应体。For example, Hadoop — code developed at Yahoo before it was released in open source form — is becoming a foundational technology for the era of big data. Hadoop was designed to handle the masses of data stored in the sort of distributed computing systems pioneered by large internet companies and now found in wider corporate use.例如,Hadoop(其代码是在雅虎(Yahoo!)开发的,而后在开源论坛发布)正逐渐成为大数据时代的基础性技术之一。Hadoop旨在处理储存在分布式计算系统上的海量数据,这种系统的首批使用者是大型互联网公司,如今已在企业界得到更广泛的应用。Earlier this year, Cloudera, one of the companies trying to build a business on Hadoop, declared itself the second open source company to hit 0m in annual revenue, after Red Hat.今年早些时候,试图在Hadoop平台上建立业务的Cloudera,宣称自己是继红帽之后第二家年收入达1亿美元的开源软件公司。Open source is also proliferating in databases designed to support applications that run in the cloud. MongoDB, the standard-bearer for this wave of so-called NoSQL database companies, was valued at nearly bn in a round of fundraising earlier this year. Along with Cloudera — which has raised .2bn, much of it from Intel, and been valued privately at more than bn — it is at the forefront of a wave of IPOs anticipated for next year.一些数据库也大量采用开源技术,这些数据库旨在撑在云端运行的应用。作为这波所谓NoSQL数据库公司中的领袖,MongoDB在今年早些时候的一轮融资中被估值为将近20亿美元。该公司与Cloudera(Cloudera已融资12亿美元,其中许多来自英特尔(Intel),私下的估值已逾40亿美元)一道,均处在预期明年将到来的一波IPO潮的最前沿。Critics, though, point to the past failure of open source developers to make much of a dent in the sector. Their technology “is not tested, it’s not hardened, and they have this new business model that’s totally unproven”, says Gary Bloom, chief executive of MarkLogic, a NoSQL company that still takes the traditional approach of selling licences to its products.但批评人士指出,开源开发者过去并没能在该行业中留下多少印记。MarkLogic首席执行官加里#8226;布卢姆(Gary Bloom)称,这些开发者的技术“未经检验,并不可靠,而且他们的这种新商业模式完全未经验”。MarkLogic是一家仍走传统路线的NoSQL公司,依靠的是出售自己产品的许可。MarkLogic’s own revenues last year were “well north of 0m” and the 14-year-old company is also eying an IPO, he adds.布卢姆补充称,去年MarkLogic的年收入“远超过1亿美元”,而且这家创办了14年的公司也在考虑举行IPO。In recent years, though, being able to reach a mass user base with free software proved a bigger lure — even if turning reach into revenue has been a challenge. “If the cost of entry to our technology was 0,000 a server, not many people would be in a position to use it,” argues Kelly Stirman, head of strategy at Mongo. There are “hundreds of thousands of deployments” of the company’s free software, he says, though it has only 2,000 paying customers.但是,最近几年的事实明,能用自由软件来与海量用户群建立联系是一个更大的诱惑——尽管如何把这种联系转化为收入一直是个难题。Mongo战略主管凯利#8226;斯蒂尔曼(Kelly Stirman)称:“如果使用我们技术的成本是每台务器10万美元,有财力用的人恐怕不会太多。”他说,该公司的自由软件有“数十万使用者”,尽管付费客户只有2000个。Ben Golub, chief executive of open source company Docker, suggests the new wave of developers have learnt the lessons of the past and are adding commercial tools and services to the mix.开源软件公司Docker的首席执行官本#8226;戈卢布(Ben Golub)认为,新一波的开发者已从历史中汲取了教训,他们正将收费工具和务打包进来。One opportunity lies in the need for add-on technologies to monitor and control IT systems. Mongo, for example, lets users run management software on eight servers free of charge, but makes them pay a server to add more.一个机遇在于客户对监控IT系统的附加技术的需求。例如,Mongo允许用户在8台务器上免费运行管理软件,但用户每增加一台务器需付给它50美元。A further opportunity comes from running the software on their own servers and providing a service to users through the cloud. Docker, for instance, sells a hosted service to small businesses that do not want to take on the work of managing their own IT.另一个机遇在于,在它们自己的务器上运行软件,并通过云向用户提供务。举个例子,Docker向不愿承担管理自身IT工作的小企业提供收费托管务。Even so, some are still relying on the old model of offering free software but selling the maintenance and support. This is clearest in the Hadoop market, where Hortonworks — which last year became the first open source company since Red Hat to IPO — has stuck to the older business model in contrast to rivals Cloudera and MapR.尽管如此,仍有一些公司依赖于提供自由软件但出售维护和持务的旧模式。这种情况在Hadoop市场最为明显:与竞争对手Cloudera和MapR相比,Hortonworks仍恪守比较老的商业模式。Hortonworks去年举行了IPO,成为红帽之后首家上市的开源软件公司。Whatever their business model, the new generation of open source companies will have to move fast to avoid being crowded out by established tech giants.无论它们的商业模式是怎样,新一代开源软件公司必须迅速采取行动,以避免被老牌的科技业巨头挤出局。Big players’ influence is clearest in the development of OpenStack, a package of software designed as a foundation for cloud computing. IBM and Hewlett-Packard have turned to OpenStack to support their own ambitions against cloud companies including Amazon and Microsoft.在OpenStack的开发方面,大玩家的影响力最为明显。OpenStack是一揽子软件,目的是成为云计算的基础。IBM和惠普(HP)已转而使用OpenStack来撑其对抗亚马逊(Amazon)和微软等云企业的抱负。“Everyone has an axe to grind on it,” says Mr Volpi, which has slowed progress. “There is a reasonable amount of frustration over the speed with which it is being implemented.”“在这件事上,每个人都有自己的盘算,”沃尔皮表示,这拖慢了开源软件的进展。“人们对开源落实的速度有些沮丧。”It may sound like an opportunity for focused open source companies. But history suggests that even if their software catches on, commercial success may be elusive.这听起来也许是专注于开源软件的公司面临的一个机遇。但历史告诉我们,即使这些公司的软件受到人们的追捧,它们可能也难以取得商业上的成功。 /201504/368770

  Google will on Wednesday be accused by Brussels of illegally abusing its dominance of the internet search market in Europe, a step that ultimately could force it to change its business model fundamentally and pay hefty fines.欧盟(EU)将于周三指控谷歌(Google)非法滥用其在欧洲互联网搜索市场的主导地位。此举最终可能会迫使谷歌从根本上改变商业模式,并付高额罚金。Margrethe Vestager, the EU’s competition commissioner, is to say that the US group will soon be served with a formal charge sheet alleging that it breached antitrust rules by diverting traffic from rivals to favour its own services, according to two people familiar with the case. The initial charge will focus on product searches where Google is accused of harming other shopping sites, but could be extended to other areas.知情人士表示,欧盟反垄断专员玛格丽特#8226;维斯特格(Margrethe Vestager)将会宣称,谷歌将很快收到正式起诉书,指控其违反反垄断法规,将竞争对手的流量分流去持自身务。最初的指控将集中于产品搜索务,谷歌被控在搜索过程中损害其他购物网站的利益。但这一指控可能会扩展到其他领域。Google confirmed the imminent charges in an internal email sent to staff on Tuesday. “We have a very strong case, with especially good arguments when it comes to better services for consumers and increased competition,” it said in the communication, a copy of which was obtained by the Financial Times.周二,谷歌在发送给员工的一封内部电子邮件中确认即将面临指控。在英国《金融时报》记者看到的这封邮件的拷贝中,谷歌表示:“我们的理由非常充分,尤其是在以更好的务面对消费者、面对更趋激烈的竞争方面,我们的理由更加充分。”Serving Google with a so-called statement of objections will be the opening salvo in one of the defining antitrust cases of the internet era. It could prove as epic as the decade-long battle with Microsoft that ultimately cost the company 2bn in fines.作为互联网时代具有判例意义的反垄断案之一,该案的第一步将是向谷歌递交所谓“异议声明”(statement of objections)。这一案件或将被明是与微软反垄断案同样经典的案例。微软反垄断案前后持续了10年,最终令微软付了20亿欧元罚金。The commission’s move comes after a torrid five-year investigation that Google came close to settling without charges last year. The draft deal collapsed after fierce objections were raised by ministers in France and Germany, and by some of the continent’s most powerful telecoms and media groups.在欧盟委员会采取最新举措之前,谷歌曾面临长达5年的调查,去年一度接近达成免受指控的和解方案。但由于法德两国部长及欧洲最有影响的电信和媒体集团的激烈反对,这一和解协议的草案未能通过。 /201504/370405。

  

  Shenzhou V Spacecraft神舟五号载人飞船Shenzhou V-atop a Long March 2F rocket-was successfully launched on October 15, 2003 ,at 09:00 Beijing time ( UTC +8) ,carrying one astronaut, Yang Liwei. As the country’s first manned space launch, the launch of the Shenzhou V space capsule, however, will mark China’s entry to an exclusive club by becoming only the third nation in history to successfully place an astronaut into Earth’s orbit after the ed States and Russia. Chinese President Hu Jintao watched the launch of the spaceship. The Shenzhou program, supported and run by the military, had been carried out under much secrecy. Most people got their first glimpse of the launch preparations on Monday, when Chinese state television began airing news stories and a documentary on the upcoming mission. At 09:34 Beijing time( UTC + 8) , the astronaut send the message of“I feel good. ”to the earth. And when it came to the sixth orbiting around the earth there was the first “sky-to-ground greeting” between Yang Liwei and Cao Gangchuan, the Defense Minister. At 18:40 Beijing time ( UTC +8) , Yang Liwei displayed the national flag of China and the flag of --UN and gave the greetings to the Earth. Yang Liwei also had a communication with his families at 19:59 Beijing time ( UTC +8).“神舟五号”载人飞船是中国神舟号飞船系列之一,为中国首次发射的载人航天飞行器,于北京时间(UTC +8)2003年10月15日9时在中国酒泉航天发射中心用“长征二号”F型运载火箭发射,将航天员杨利伟送入太空。这次的成功发射标志着中国成为继前苏联(现由俄罗斯承继)和美国之后,第三个有能力独自将人送上太空的国家。中国国家主席胡锦涛在现场观看了飞船的发射。“神舟五号”的研制和发射都是由军方实施,相当保密。许多人是在周一即将发射前官方媒体开始对此进行报导时才首次了解发射的准备过程。9时34分杨利伟向地面表示“感觉良好”。17时32分,飞船在进行第六圈飞行时,杨利伟与国防部长曹刚川进行第一次“天地对话”。18时40分,中国航天员杨利伟在太空展示中国国旗和联合国旗,并向地球发出问候。19时59分,杨利伟与家人通话。The launch of Shenzhou V took place at the Jiuqian Space Center, in north- western Gansu Province and landed after orbiting about the Earth 14 times during a 21-hour period in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The orbital module remains in orbit for several months.“神舟五号”在完成了14圈绕地球的飞行后,返回舱于2003年10月16日6时23分在内蒙古着陆场成功着陆,离预定着陆地点仅差4.8千米。轨道舱继续绕地球运行半年左右。 /201603/430088LET me hazard a guess that you think a real person has written what you’re ing. Maybe you’re right. Maybe not. Perhaps you should ask me to confirm it the way your computer does when it demands that you type those letters and numbers crammed like abstract art into that annoying little box.让我来猜猜看,你认为你所阅读的内容是由一个真实存在的人写的。你可能是对的,也可能是错的。或许你应该让我确认这种说法,就像你的电脑要求你将抽象艺术般的字母和数字输入那个令人厌烦的小盒子一样。Because, these days, a shocking amount of what we’re ing is created not by humans, but by computer algorithms. We probably should have suspected that the information assaulting us 24/7 couldn’t all have been created by people bent over their laptops.因为,目前有相当多的阅读内容不是由人类编写的,而是由计算机算法完成的。我们可能应该会猜想,每天24小时向我们袭来的信息可能不完全是由人类俯在笔记本电脑前编写的。It’s understandable. The multitude of digital avenues now available to us demand content with an appetite that human effort can no longer satisfy. This demand, paired with ever more sophisticated technology, is spawning an industry of “automated narrative generation.”这是可以理解的。人类的努力已经无法满足我们现在能够使用的各种数字渠道对内容的需求。这种需求,再加上更加成熟的技术,滋生了一个“文本自动生成”产业。Companies in this business aim to relieve humans from the burden of the writing process by using algorithms and natural language generators to create written content. Feed their platforms some data — financial earnings statistics, let’s say — and poof! In seconds, out comes a narrative that tells whatever story needs to be told.该领域中的公司旨在利用算法和自然语言生成器编写内容,使人类摆脱写作过程中的负担。将一些数据——比如金融收益数据——输入它们的平台,然后“嗖”的一声!几秒钟之内就会产生一些内容,提供人们需要的各种报道。These robo-writers don’t just regurgitate data, either; they create human-sounding stories in whatever voice — from staid to sassy — befits the intended audience. Or different audiences. They’re that smart. And when you the output, you’d never guess the writer doesn’t have a heartbeat.这些机器人写手并不只是重复数据;它们以适合目标受众的风格——从古板到活泼——写出看起来像是人类编写的报道。它们非常聪明。当你阅读这些报道时,你绝不会猜到这个作者没有心跳。Consider the opening sentences of these two sports pieces:看看这两篇体育报道的开篇语句。“Things looked bleak for the Angels when they trailed by two runs in the ninth inning, but Los Angeles recovered thanks to a key single from Vladimir Guerrero to pull out a 7-6 victory over the Boston Red Sox at Fenway Park on Sunday.”“周日,天使队(Angels)在第九局中落后两分时,情况看起来不妙,但凭借弗拉迪米尔·葛雷诺(Vladimir Guerrero)赢得的关键一分,洛杉矶天使队挽回败局,在芬威球场(Fenway Park)以七比六的比分击败波士顿红袜队(Boston Red Sox)。”“The University of Michigan baseball team used a four-run fifth inning to salvage the final game in its three-game weekend series with Iowa, winning 7-5 on Saturday afternoon (April 24) at the Wilpon Baseball Complex, home of historic Ray Fisher Stadium.”“周六下午(4月24日),密歇根大学(University of Michigan)棒球队在威尔彭棒球场(Wilpon Baseball Complex)——具有历史意义的雷·费舍尔体育场(Ray Fisher Stadium)的所在地,通过赢得四分的第五局比赛,扭转局势,最终以七比五的比分赢得了与爱荷华棒球队在周末举行的三场比赛中的最后一场。”If you can’t tell which was written by a human, you’re not alone. According to a study conducted by Christer Clerwall of Karlstad University in Sweden and published in Journalism Practice, when presented with sports stories not unlike these, study respondents couldn’t tell the difference. (Machine first, human second, in our example, by the way.)如果你无法分辨哪一篇是由人类写的,那你不是唯一一个。瑞典卡尔斯塔得大学(Karlstad University)的克里斯特·克莱瓦尔(Christer Clerwall)开展了一项研究,并在《新闻实践》(Journalism Practice)上发表了相关论文。研究显示,当看到类似的体育报道时,调查对象无法辨别其中的区别。(顺便说一下,在我们提供的例子中,第一篇是机器写的,第二篇是人写的。)Algorithms and natural language generators have been around for a while, but they’re getting better and faster as the demand for them spurs investment and innovation. The sheer volume and complexity of the Big Data we generate, too much for mere mortals to tackle, calls for artificial rather than human intelligence to derive meaning from it all.算法和自然语言生成器已经存在了一段时间,但随着对它们的需求刺激了投资和创新,它们变得越来越好,越来越快。我们产生海量的大数据(Big Data),而且很复杂,凡人难以处理,需要人工智能,而不是人类智能,来从中获取有意的信息。Set loose on the mother lode — especially stats-rich domains like finance, sports and merchandising — the new software platforms apply advanced metrics to identify patterns, trends and data anomalies. They then rapidly craft the explanatory narrative, stepping in as robo-journalists to replace humans.将之应用于大量资源,特别是在金融、体育和销售规划等数据繁多的领域,这种新的软件平台就会应用先进的度量标准,去确认模式、趋势和反常数据。然后,它们会迅速产生解释性文本,成为代替人类的机器人记者。The Associated Press uses Automated Insights’ Wordsmith platform to create more than 3,000 financial reports per quarter. It published a story on Apple’s latest record-busting earnings within minutes of their release. Forbes uses Narrative Science’s Quill platform for similar efforts and refers to the firm as a partner.美联社(The Associated Press)每季度利用自动化洞察力公司(Automated Insights)的Wordsmith平台撰写3000多篇金融报道。他们在苹果(Apple)公司公布最新创纪录收益几分钟之后,就发表了一篇报道。福布斯(Forbes)利用叙述科学公司(Narrative Science)的Quill平台撰写类似报道,并称该公司是他们的合作伙伴。Then we have Quakebot, the algorithm The Los Angeles Times uses to analyze geological data. It was the “author” of the first news report of the 4.7 magnitude earthquake that hit Southern California last year, published on the newspaper’s website just moments after the event. The newspaper also uses algorithms to enhance its homicide reporting.然后又出现了Quakebot,《洛杉矶时报》(The Los Angeles Times)利用这种算法分析地质数据。它是第一篇有关南加利福尼亚州去年发生的4.7级地震的新闻报道的“作者”。地震发生后,该报立即在其网站了发表了这篇报道。该报还利用算法加强命案报道。But we should be forgiven a sense of unease. These software processes, which are, after all, a black box to us, might skew to some predicated norm, or contain biases that we can’t possibly discern. Not to mention that we may be missing out on the insights a curious and fertile human mind could impart when considering the same information.如果我们对此感到一丝不安,这也是可以理解的。这些软件程序毕竟对我们来说是一个黑盒子,它们可能偏向于一些特定的基准,或包含我们可能无法辨别的倾向性。更不用说,我们可能会错失一个好奇的、具有创造力的人类在思考相同的信息时所能产生的那种洞见。The mantra around all of this carries the usual liberation theme: Robo-journalism will free humans to do more reporting and less data processing.这一切所表达的呼声,包含着常见的解放主题——机器新闻将会解放人类,使人类能够更多地进行报道,减少数据处理工作。That would be nice, but Kristian Hammond, Narrative Science’s co-founder, estimates that 90 percent of news could be algorithmically generated by the mid-2020s, much of it without human intervention. If this projection is anywhere near accurate, we’re on a slippery slope.这不失为一件美事。但是,据叙述科学联合创始人克里斯蒂安·哈蒙德(Kristian Hammond)估计,到本世纪20年代中期,将有90%的新闻由计算机算法生成,其中大多都无需人工干预。倘若这个预测接近事实,那么我们就会处在一个滑坡之上。It’s mainly robo-journalism now, but it doesn’t stop there. As software stealthily replaces us as communicators, algorithmic content is rapidly permeating the nooks and crannies of our culture, from government affairs to fantasy football to reviews of your next pair of shoes.目前,机器新闻已经占据主导,但它并未就此止步。随着软件悄悄取代我们成为传播者,从政府事务到梦幻足球,再到对你下一双鞋子的评价,算法生成的内容也在迅速向我们文化中的各个角落和缝隙渗透。Automated Insights states that its software created one billion stories last year, many with no human intervention; its home page, as well as Narrative Science’s, displays logos of customers all of us would recognize: Samsung, Comcast, The A.P., Edmunds.com and Yahoo. What are the chances that you haven’t consumed such content without realizing it?自动化洞察力公司指出,其软件去年一共创作了10亿个报道,许多都没有人工干预;它和叙述科学公司的主页上,展示着我们耳熟能详的客户标志:三星(Samsung)、康卡斯特(Comcast)、美联社、Edmunds.com和雅虎(Yahoo)。所以你极有可能在没有意识的情况下消费了这种内容。Books are robo-written, too. Consider the works of Philip M. Parker, a management science professor at the French business school Insead: His patented algorithmic system has generated more than a million books, more than 100,000 of which are available on Amazon. Give him a technical or arcane subject and his system will mine data and write a book or report, mimicking the thought process, he says, of a person who might write on the topic. Et voilà, “The Official Patient’s Sourcebook on Acne Rosacea.”机器人还在写书。来看看法国的欧洲工商管理学院(Insead)管理科学教授菲利普·M·帕克(Philip M. Parker)的作品:他的专利算法系统已经生成了超过100万本图书,其中有10万多本在亚马逊上销售。他说,给他一个技术性或晦涩难懂的话题,他的系统就能模仿可能就此题目进行写作的人的思维过程,挖掘数据,撰写一本书或一篇报告。比如,《红斑痤疮患者官方资料》(The Official Patient’s Sourcebook on Acne Rosacea)。Narrative Science claims it can create “a narrative that is indistinguishable from a human-written one,” and Automated Insights says it specializes in writing “just like a human would,” but that’s precisely what gives me pause. The phrase is becoming a de facto parenthetical — not just for content creation, but where most technology is concerned.叙述科学声称它可以创作“与出自人类的作品分毫不差的文本”。自动化洞察力则称它的专长是“像一个人一样”写作,但这正是让我担忧的地方。这种说法事实上已经成为一段插入语——不只是对内容创作,而且对于大多数科技都是如此。Our phones can speak to us (just as a human would). Our home appliances can take commands (just as a human would). Our cars will be able to drive themselves (just as a human would). What does “human” even mean?我们的手机可以(像一个人一样)和我们说话。我们的家用电器能够(像一个人一样)接受指令。我们的汽车将能(像一个人一样)自行驾驶。那么,“人”究竟是什么意思?With technology, the next evolutionary step always seems logical. That’s the danger. As it seduces us again and again, we relinquish a little part of ourselves. We rarely step back to reflect on whether, ultimately, we’re giving up more than we’re getting.在科技的帮助下,下一个革命性的进展似乎总显得顺理成章。这就是危险所在。鉴于它反复引诱我们,我们就会放弃一小部分自己。我们很少会后退一步,反思我们最后放弃的东西是否比得到的更多。Then again, who has time to think about that when there’s so much information to absorb every day? After all, we’re only human.再者,当每天都有这么多信息需要吸收的时候,谁还有时间去思考这那个问题?毕竟,我们只是人类。Related: Interactive Quiz: Did a Human or a Computer Write This? A shocking amount of what we’re ing is created not by humans, but by computer algorithms. Can you tell the difference? Take the quiz.相关内容:互动问答:这是人还是计算机写的?现在我们读到的内容中,由计算机算法而非人类编写的比例相当之高。你能区分吗?来试试。 /201503/364601HONG KONG — Tianjin Tianhai, a Chinese shipping group, will buy the technology distributor Ingram Micro for billion in the latest mega-deal involving a Chinese company.香港——中国航运集团天津天海将斥资60亿美元收购技术分销商英迈(Ingram Micro),这是最新的一宗涉及中国公司的大型交易。Tianjin Tianhai will pay .90 a share in the deal, which Ingram, based in Irvine, Calif., said would help it increase investment and expand its geographical reach. Ingram will suspend its quarterly dividend payment and its share repurchase program until the deal is complete.英迈总部设在加利福尼亚州欧文市,该公司表示,天津天海的收购价格是每股38.90美元,这宗交易将帮助英迈增加投资,扩大地域辐射范围。在交易完成之前,英迈将暂停其季度股息的付和股票回购计划。The deal was made in the face of growing wariness in Washington over Chinese acquisitions of technology companies in the ed States. On Tuesday, Fairchild Semiconductor International rejected a .5 billion bid from Chinese state-backed buyers because of fears that the deal would not get regulatory approval from the Committee on Foreign Investment in the ed States, also known as Cfius.该交易达成之际,正值华盛顿对中国收购美国科技公司变得越来越谨慎。本周二,仙童半导体公司(Fairchild Semiconductor International)拒绝了一家有中国政府背景的买主提出的25亿美元收购要约,因为他们担心监管机构美国外国投资委员会(Committee on Foreign Investment in the ed States,也称Cfius)不会批准这宗交易。Regulatory filings on Wednesday showed that Tianjin Tianhai would be required to pay Ingram a termination fee of 0 million under several circumstances, among them the dismantling of the deal by antitrust concerns or a review by Cfius.本周三提交的监管报备文件显示,如果该交易因反垄断问题或Cfius的审查而被否决,或者出现了其他几种情况,天津天海需要向英迈付4亿美元的终止费。Ingram will become a subsidiary of HNA Group, an air transport and logistics company based in Hainan, China. Alain Monié, Ingram’s chief executive, will remain in place, and the company said it did not expect any disruptions. Tianjin Tianhai is itself a subsidiary of HNA Group.英迈将成为海航集团(HNA Group)的一家子公司。海航是一家航空运输和物流公司,总部设在中国海南,天津天海本身就是它的子公司。英迈的首席执行官阿兰·莫尼(Alain Monié)将继续担任该职位,公司表示他们预计不会出现任何扰动。“We look forward to supporting Ingram Micro’s management team and strategies, including continued expansion into new geographies, while also offering their vendor and customer partners access to new and complementary offerings,” Adam Tan, the chief executive of HNA Group, said in a news release.“我们希望为英迈的管理团队和战略提供持,包括继续拓展到新的地区,并向他们的供应商和客户合作伙伴提供新的、互补的产品,”海航总裁谭向东(Adam Tan)在一份新闻稿中表示。Mr. Tan added that Ingram would become the biggest revenue generator for HNA Group and would help it reach “business opportunities in emerging markets, which have higher growth rates and better profitability.”谭向东还说,英迈将成为海航集团最大的收入来源,帮助它“在增长率和盈利能力较高的新兴市场上获取商业机会”。Mr. Monié said that HNA Group’s logistics and its presence in China would support the growth of Ingram.莫尼说,海航集团的物流业务以及在中国的影响力将促进英迈的增长。China International Capital Corporation and Bravia Capital acted as lead financial advisers to HNA Group, and Weil, Gotshal amp; Manges acted as legal counsel.海航集团的首席财务顾问是中国国际金融股份有限公司和Bravia Capital,法律顾问是威嘉律师事务所(Weil Gotshal amp; Manges)。Morgan Stanley amp; Co. acted as financial adviser and Davis Polk amp; Wardwell acted as legal counsel to Ingram.英迈的财务顾问是根士丹利(Morgan Stanley amp; Co.),法律顾问是达维律师事务所(Davis Polk amp; Wardwell)。 /201602/427272

  Technology makes our lives better. You#39;re taking a MOOC class, and have your appointments organized on your computer. You watch wepisodes on your internet-capable high-definition television. You pay your bills electronically and save time and money. That#39;s fine and dandy, until someone takes out the electronic banking system and the machines take over the planet.科技为我们带来了更美好的生活。你可以参加网络课程,利用电脑整理自己的约会事宜。你也可以在持联网的高清电视机上浏览网页,使用网络进行电子付。这一切都让人觉得如此得心应手,直到有一天你发现,有人可以侵入的网上交易系统,而先进的机器将会攻陷我们的星球。Sounds crazy? Perhaps. None of the gadgets and innovations we included in our list of 10 scary technologies is likely to rain death and destruction on our little planet, though that doesn#39;t prevent people from being unnerved by them. Read on to find out what weirdness may await in the future.这听起来是不是很疯狂?或许吧。以下我们列出的这10个吓人的科技发明中,不论是小玩意还是大发明,都不大可能对我们的星球造成伤害甚至是毁灭性的打击。只不过人们仍然对此感到惶惶不安。现在就让我们来看看,未来到底有什么古怪的事情在等着我们吧。10.Hearing Voices at the Store10.商店里的私人扩音器Imagine that you walk into your friendly neighborhood big box store and instead of being greeted by a smiling retiree, you hear whispered voices prompting you to buy things. You spin around to see who#39;s speaking, but there#39;s no one there and none of the other shoppers seem alarmed. Have you finally gone nuts? No, but the ]advertising industry has.想想看,你走进附近一家环境不错的大型超市,迎接你的并不是一位面带笑容的老年人,而是亲切温柔的声音耳语般地鼓励你购买一些商品。你四处搜寻,想要找到声音的来源,然而店内并无任何工作人员。你环顾四周,发现身边的其他消费者也并无异常。最后你会不会好奇的简直要疯掉了呢?不,当然不会。真正疯狂的是那些广告商。A company called Holosonics has developed a technology called the Audio Spotlight system, which uses tiny speakers to focus sound into a very narrow beam. Ultrasonic frequencies are too high for the human ear to hear, but as the sound travels from the Audio Spotlight system#39;s speakers, air distorts the sound and makes it audible. It#39;s perfect for in-store advertising, but you#39;d have to be standing in the right place to hear it.全方位应用声学公司(Holosonics)已经研发了一种称作“声音聚焦系统”的技术,能够利用微型扩音器将声音聚集成狭窄的一束。因超声波的频率过高,人类自然无法听到这类声音。但是应用了“声音聚焦系统”的扩音器发出声音后,空气可以改变超声波,使其能够为人类所听见。这种技术用来进行店内广告及营销工作简直是再合适不过了!然而要注意的是,只有站在正确的位置才能听到声音。9.DNA Hacking9.解密DNAWhen the human genome was fully mapped in 2003, researchers around the globe began to dissect the genome#39;s 3 billion-plus base pairs for the root causes of diseases like Alzheimer#39;s and common cancers. But that was only the beginning. The real dream of biotechnology is not only to understand how our DNA expresses itself, but also to ;write; new DNA that heals disease and repairs bodies from the inside out. J. Craig Venter, the bio-entrepreneur whose company helped map the genome, reached a new milestone in 2010 when he built the world#39;s first synthetic, self-replicating chromosome He loaded some homemade synthetic DNA into a bacterial cell and watched it grow and divide according to computer-generated As, Ts, Gs and Cs. By his own reckoning, he had created ;life.;在人类基因组计划于2003年圆满完成之后,全球范围内的研究人员都开始深入研究基因组中30多亿个碱基,试图找出一些疾病如阿兹海默或其他常见癌症的根本病因。然而这仅仅是个开始。生物科技的终极理想不仅在于搞清楚基因表达的方式,还要能够实现新型基因的创造,从而实现由内而外、完全治愈疾病的目的。克雷格·文特尔(J.Craig Venter)是一名生物科技领域的的企业家,其研究机构为“人类基因组”计划贡献了一份力量。2010年,他所进行的“全球首例人工合成、自我复制的染色体”项目取得突破性进展。克雷格·文特尔将人工合成的DNA植入菌细胞,通过计算机生成四种碱基(As,Ts,Gs 和Cs)来观察菌细胞的分化生长。用他自己的话来说,他是在创造生命。In the happy scenario, biologists of the near future will figure out how to program viruses and bacteria to deliver custom-made cures that shrink cancerous tumors or reverse the tide of dementia. In the super scary scenario, bioterrorists engineer deadly superbugs that target us at a genetic level. In a 2012 article, The Atlantic imagined a technologically plausible scheme in which the president of the ed States is assassinated by a highly contagious cold designed to target a weak link in his specific genetic code. To keep your DNA out of enemy hands, it#39;s best not to leave the house without a hairnet and rubber gloves.如果事情发展顺利的话,在不远的将来,生物学家有望控制细菌和病毒,针对患病者的病症提供所需的治疗,从而缓和癌症类肿瘤的病况或是有效扭转老年痴呆的发作。不过,如果事情朝着极其可怕的一面发展,生化恐怖分子也可能研发出致命性的超级细菌,直接从基因层面上对人类构成威胁。2012年,美国大西洋月刊发表一篇文章,作者在文章中提出一个科技上完全可行的假设:通过使人感染一种高传染性的感冒,你能暗杀美国总统于无形,因为这种感冒能攻击人体基因代码中某一特定的微弱链接。这样看来,要想避免敌人获取你的DNA,以后出门时发网和橡胶手套可都要随身携带啦。8.Cyberwar8.网络战争Imagine a war fought completely by computer. No, we#39;re not talking about a scene out of the movie ;WarGames,; we#39;re talking an all-out attack on a nation#39;s electronic infrastructure. What#39;s that, you may ask? Those are the systems that control emergency response services, banks and other electronic commerce, the systems that run the electrical grid, water and fuel pipeline controls, and oh, yeah: defense weaponry. A well-executed attack could cause serious disruption and open the populace up to physical threats.你能想象一场完全由电脑来对峙的战争吗?等等,我们说的可不是《战争游戏》中的一些场面,而是大家的电脑火力全开地攻击一个国家的电子设施。听到这里你的反应可能是:“呃,你在说什么?”我们所说的电子设施就是那些控制着应急务部门、、电子贸易、国家电网、供水管道、燃油管道和……噢!还有怎么能少的了防御武器装备运行系统。一场精心设计的网络攻击可以完全瓦解上述的电子设施,甚至乎会影响到普通大众的人身安全。In 2013, FBI Director James Comey predicted that cyberattacks would soon overtake traditional international terrorism as the greatest threat to homeland security. In 2008,Georgia suspected Russia of denial-of-service attacks (which Russia denied). In 2013, South Korea accused North Korea of cyberttacks. Hackers have taken on the Pentagon, and some suspect terrorist organizations of training their operatives to launch computer assaults. So how do you defend against a cyberattack? Educating people about computer viruses and Trojan horses will help, and using updated antivirus software is also important.联邦调查局局长詹姆斯#8226;科米(James Comey)在2013年预测,网络攻击会很快超越传统的国际恐怖组织,成为国家安全的最大隐患。2008年,在美国佐治亚州(Georgia),有互联网研究专家怀疑俄罗斯政府对美国发起了阻断务攻击。(译注:denial-of-service attacks,缩写:DoS,亦称洪水攻击,是一种网络攻击手法,其目的在于使目标计算机的网络或系统资源耗尽,使务暂时中断或停止,导致其对目标客户不可用。)而俄国政府对此言论表示否认。2013年韩国控告朝鲜对其进行网络攻击。这么多的网络攻击事件传出后,顿时言论四起,有的说黑客已经攻破了五角大楼的防火墙,还有的说有些疑似恐怖组织正在训练特工,准备发起电脑袭击。那么身陷不安全网络的我们该如何防范呢?为了能够让大众更安全地上网,政府应该普及有关计算机病毒和特洛伊木马病毒(Trojan horses)的各种知识,让公众能够识别并预防,除此之外,还应该不断更新使用的杀毒软件。Cyberattacks actually might be useful tools against machines that have learned to think for themselves and chosen to eliminate humanity. It#39;s the stuff of science fiction, but why do some people believe this could happen? Learn more on the next page.科幻小说可能会出现:网络攻击实际上是用来对付那些拥有了意识并想要消除人类的机器的。但为什么会有人相信呢?不要走开,下一小节告诉你。审校:Fiona 校对:落花生 Freya然 /201507/384945

  LONDON — When a SWAT team appeared at Pavel Durov’s door in St. Petersburg, he started thinking about his future in Russia.伦敦——当一特警队出现在帕维尔·杜罗夫(Pavel Durov)位于圣彼得堡的住所前时,他开始考虑自己在俄罗斯的前途。He was home alone, and he peered at them through a monitor.当时杜罗夫独自一人在家,通过监视器看着他们。“They had guns and they looked very serious,” said Mr. Durov, once Russia’s biggest celebrity entrepreneur. “They seemed to want to break the door.”“他们端着,看起来非常严肃,”杜罗夫说。“像是准备破门而入。”他曾是俄罗斯最受欢迎的知名企业家。Not long ago, Mr. Durov, 30, was seen as Russia’s Mark Zuckerberg. He founded a social network, VKontakte, which is more popular in Russia than Facebook, and made a splash by publicly offering Edward Snowden a job.不久之前,30岁的杜罗夫还被视作俄罗斯的马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)。他创建了社交网站VKontakte,在俄罗斯比Facebook更受欢迎。他还因为公开为爱德华·斯诺登(Edward Snowden)提供工作机会而引起轰动。Then the Kremlin tightened its grip over the Internet and President Vladimir V. Putin’s allies took control of VKontakte. Mr. Durov eventually sold his remaining stake for millions and fled Russia in April, after resisting government pressure to release the data of Ukrainian protest leaders.后来,克里姆林宫加大了对网络的管控力度,总统弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin)的盟友掌控了VKontakte。杜罗夫最终以数以百万美元计的价格出售了自己剩余的股份,并于今年4月离开俄罗斯。在此之前,他顶住了来自政府的压力,拒绝透露乌克兰抗议活动领袖的相关信息。Mr. Durov, known for his subversive wit and an all-black wardrobe that evokes Neo from the “Matrix” movies, is now a little-seen nomad, moving from country to country every few weeks with a small band of computer programmers. One day he is in Paris, another in Singapore.杜罗夫以智力超群、喜欢穿一袭黑衣而闻名。这种打扮让人想起《黑客帝国》(Matrix)里的尼奥(Neo)。他现在已经成了神出鬼没的流浪者,每隔几周就会带领一小组计算机编程人员从一个国家转移到另一个国家。某一天,他会待在巴黎,另一天又会现身新加坡。“Me myself, I’m not a big fan of the idea of countries,” Mr. Durov said, wearing a custom-made cross between a hoodie and a sport coat.身穿兼具帽衫与休闲西特色的定制装的杜罗夫说,“我本人不大赞同国家的概念。”When he arrived with little warning in London for his first interview outside cyberspace since leaving Russia, he was en route to San Francisco, where he appeared at a technology conference on Tuesday. He is surfacing to showcase his new messaging app, Telegram, for people craving privacy and security.他突然造访伦敦,在离开俄罗斯后首次现身接受面对面采访。当时他正在前往旧金山的途中,准备在接下来的周二出席在那里举行的科技大会。他之所以露面,是为了展示为注重隐私与安全的用户设计的新即时通讯应用Telegram。His odyssey reflects the changing nature of the Internet in Russia.杜罗夫的传奇经历反映了俄罗斯互联网性质的变迁。The Internet was once seen as a way to diversify Russia’s economy beyond oil. When VKontakte started in 2006, Mr. Durov says, he envisioned his country as a tax-free and libertarian utopia for technologists.互联网曾被视作推动俄罗斯经济摆脱对石油的依赖而向多样化发展的一种途径。杜罗夫在2006年推出VKontakte时表示,他理想中的俄罗斯是一个让科技从业者如鱼得水的自由意志主义免税乌托邦。“The best thing about Russia at that time was the Internet sphere was completely not regulated,” he said. “In some ways, it was more liberal than the ed States.”“那时的俄罗斯最棒的一点在于,互联网领域完全不受约束,”他说。“在某些方面,俄罗斯比美国还要自由。”Now the Internet is viewed with suspicion by Mr. Putin, who has called it a “C.I.A. project” and has taken steps to insulate Russia from the rest of the digital world. One leading Russian activist recently said the government was on a “campaign to shut down the Internet.”到了今天,普京对互联网持怀疑态度,称这是“中情局(CIA)的项目”,并在采取措施将俄罗斯与数字世界的其他部分隔离开来。俄罗斯一位著名活动人士最近表示,政府正在“开展行动压制网络”。“Since I’m obviously a believer in free markets,” Mr. Durov said, “it’s hard for me to understand the current direction of the country.”“我坚信自由市场,”杜罗夫说,“所以我很难理解这个国家目前的发展方向。”Russia’s economy is also increasingly isolated, with its currency plummeting amid Western sanctions. The government is now predicting a recession for next year. Mr. Putin’s big challenge is falling oil prices, which Mr. Durov calls “the only chance” for economic and political reform.俄罗斯经济日益遭到孤立,在西方国家的制裁之下,货币大幅贬值。俄罗斯政府目前预测本国经济明年将陷入衰退。油价不断下跌是普京面临的巨大挑战,而杜罗夫称这是进行经济及政治改革的“唯一机会”。“When the petrol prices are high, there is no incentive for those reforms,” he said. “It can stay like this forever; nobody really cares.”“汽油价格很高时,没有改革的动机,”他说。“过去的状态会一直延续下去,没人真的在乎。”As the tensions in Russia play out, Mr. Durov says he is focused on Telegram, which he started last year.随着俄罗斯国内出现紧张气氛,杜罗夫表示,他目前关注的是去年启动的Telegram。There will be no outside investors, he says, no ads and no marketing, and it is available free, though he is likely to eventually charge for additional services. He says he has about 50 million users, almost entirely outside Russia.他表示,他们不会有外部投资者,没有广告,也没有市场营销。这款应用眼下可以免费获得,但他可能最终会为附加务收取费用。他表示,Telegram现在大约有5000万用户,几乎全部来自俄罗斯之外的地方。Mr. Durov learned programming from his brother, Nikolai, a mathematician and Mr. Durov’s right-hand man at VKontakte and Telegram. By 11, the younger Mr. Durov was coding his own versions of games like Tetris. The two developed a strategy game set in ancient China, which they called Lao .杜罗夫向哥哥尼古拉(Nikolai)学会了编程。尼古拉是一名数学家,也是杜罗夫在VKontakte和Telegram的得力助手。11岁的时候,杜罗夫就会编写自己版本的游戏,比如俄罗斯方块。兄弟二人研发了一款背景设定在古代中国的策略游戏,名为“老子军团”(Lao )。At St. Petersburg State University, Mr. Durov studied linguistics. In lieu of military service, he trained in propaganda, studying Sun Tzu, Genghis Khan and Napoleon, and he learned to make posters aimed at influencing foreign soldiers.在圣彼得堡国立大学(St. Petersburg State University)就读期间,杜罗夫学习语言学。他没有兵役,而是选择接受宣传方面的训练,研究孙子、成吉思汗和拿破仑。他还学习了如何制作旨在动摇外国部队军心的海报。The posters said things like “You are surrounded, surrender, there’s no hope,” or they would suggest to foreign soldiers that “some other guy is entertaining himself with your wife,” he recalled.这些海报上印着“你们已被包围,除了投降,别无出路,”或者告诉敌军“其他男人在和你们的妻子厮混”,他回忆道。His main interest was developing a social network. A friend who studied in America showed him Facebook, then in its infancy, and he learned from it.他主要的兴趣是开发社交网络。在美国学习的一个朋友向他介绍了当时还处于起步阶段的Facebook,他从中借鉴了一些东西。“Some things like the layout of the early VKontakte was very influenced by Facebook,” Mr. Durov said. “Otherwise it could take ages for me to build, and I was not a professional designer.”“有些东西,比如Vkontakte早期的页面布局,受Facebook的影响就很大,”杜罗夫说。“否则,我可能会花很长的时间才能完成,毕竟我不是专业的设计师。”He also recruited fellow linguistics students to build a database catering to the post-Soviet university system, a step he said gave VKontakte “a tremendous competitive advantage.”他还找来语言学专业的同学,针对苏联解体后的大学体系建立了一个数据库。此举给Vkontakte带来了“巨大的竞争优势”,他说。In 2007, he decided to allow users to upload audio and files, without regard to copyright. Such policies have drawn criticism from the ed States Trade Representative and lawsuits from major record labels.2007年,他决定不考虑版权问题,允许用户上传音频和视频文件。这个做法已经遭到了美国贸易代表的指责和主要唱片公司的起诉。“Some people told me when I was implementing it that I would go to jail the next day,” he said. “I was very careless.”“我这么做的时候,有人警告,我第二天就会蹲进大牢,”他说。“我当时根本不在乎。”Demonstrations in 2011 over parliamentary elections resulted in a government showdown. During the SWAT standoff at his home that followed, he called his brother.2011年针对议会选举的示威活动,导致了政府向他摊牌。之后,当他的家被特警围住时,他给哥哥打了一个电话。“I realized I don’t have a safe means of communications with him,” he said, adding, “That’s how Telegram started.”“我意识到,我和他之间的所有通讯手段都不安全,”他说,“这就是Telegram的缘起。”Telegram is competing in a crowded field of messaging apps that promise varying degrees of security. Telegram has its fans and detractors, but it was rated respectably in a recent evaluation by the Electronic Frontier Foundation. The Telegram company, based in Berlin, has a deliberately complex structure of scattered global shell companies intended to keep it a step ahead of subpoenas from any one government.Telegram所在的领域竞争很激烈,有大量即时通讯应用承诺为用户提供程度各异的安全保障。Telegram有粉丝也有反对者,但在电子前沿基金会(Electronic Frontier Foundation)最近的一项评估中,它的排名比较靠前。Telegram公司总部设在柏林,刻意设计了一个复杂的结构,由全球各地的空壳公司组成,力图做到比任何国家的政府发出的传票都领先一步。“This is very unusual for Russian entrepreneurs, to succeed outside of Russia,” said Sergei Guriev, a prominent economist who fled Russia last year. “He may not be a usual person in many ways, but he is definitely a very talented entrepreneur.”“俄罗斯创业者在本国以外的地方获得成功,是很不寻常的一件事,”去年逃离俄罗斯的著名经济学家谢尔盖·古里耶夫(Sergei Guriev)说。“从很多方面而言,他可能都不是一个平常人,但他绝对是一个才华横溢的创业者。”When Mr. Durov sold his stake in VKontakte last December, there was speculation it was worth a few hundred million dollars. Mr. Durov would not give a specific figure, citing a nondisclosure agreement.去年12月,杜罗夫出售了他在Vkontakte的股份。有人猜测这部分股份价值数亿美元。杜罗夫说他签订了保密协议,不能透露具体的数字。“In my days in Russia, I visited some very rich guys,” he said. “I visited big ships, private airplanes, houses — and I know for sure I don’t want this for myself.”“在俄罗斯的时候,我见过一些非常有钱的人,”他说。“我参观了他们的大型游艇、私人飞机和豪宅——我清楚地知道,我不希望自己变成这样。”“I’m very happy right now without any property anywhere,” he added. “I consider myself a legal citizen of the world.”“现在我在任何地方都没有任何资产,对此我感到很开心,”他说。“我把自己想成是这个世界的合法公民。” /201412/348087

  

  

  

  

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