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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年01月26日 13:59:03
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German politics德国政治Gone boy on the right消失的极右领袖How an anti-foreigner, anti-establishment group is changing German politics一个反移民、反伊斯兰化组织如何改变德国政治Bachmann: only joking, honest巴赫曼:真的只是玩笑罢了THE march on January 19th in Dresden by Pegida, or “Patriotic Europeans against the Islamisation of the Occident”, would have been its 13th. But it was cancelled because the police had “concrete” information of plans to assassinate its organiser, Lutz Bachmann. On January 21st Mr Bachmann was exposed in German tabloids for posing as Hitler on his Facebook page. He called it a joke, but later resigned his position. Pegida plans to resume its marches next week.1月19日,在德累斯顿爆发了一场由Pegida(或者称作“爱国欧洲人反对西方的伊斯兰化”)发起的游行。本来这次游行应该在13号举行,但是由于警方获知了刺杀该运动领袖卢茨巴赫曼行动的“详细”信息而被取消。1月21日,巴赫曼因为在“脸书”(Facebook)上传其模仿希特勒的照片而被德国小报争相报道。他声称这只是一个玩笑,但是随后他宣布辞职。Pegida计划下周恢复游行。Among its followers, despite Mr Bachmanns antics, neo-Nazis are a small minority. The typical marcher is a middle-aged, middle-class Saxon man who, says Hans Vorl?nder at the Technical University of Dresden, is alienated from politics and the liberal media, and yearns for a homogenous fatherland. The marches may have “passed the peak”, adds Dieter Rucht at the Berlin Social Science Centre. Yet there will be political fallout. Nine-tenths of Pegida supporters back the Alternative for Germany (AfD), founded only in 2013 and represented in three eastern state parliaments.在该运动众多的追随者中,除了巴赫曼这种滑稽行为的人,新纳粹仍是少数。据来自德尔德累斯顿技术大学的汉斯?福尔兰德尔讲,其中有一位的游行示威者是较为典型,他是一个来自于萨克森州的中年中产阶级男性,他对政治和自由媒体漠不关心,却呼唤一个同文同种的父国。柏林社会科学研究中心的Dieter Rucht说到,这游行队伍可能已经“越过底线”。也许会带来某些政治后果。 Pegida运动中有十分之九的持者拥护德国新选项党(AfD),该党于2013年刚刚成立,享有东部三个州的议会席位。The AfD began with an anti-euro message. Some leaders, such as Hans- Olaf Henkel, from Hamburg, want to keep it that way. But, especially in the east, the party has used populist innuendo against asylum-seekers, immigrants and homosexuals. Party elders like Alexander Gauland, in Brandenburg, openly flirt with Pegida. This is straining the AfD, which has three leaders. Bernd Lucke, an economics professor, favours an anti-euro message; Frauke Petry, a businesswoman from Saxony, and Konrad Adam, a former journalist, sympathise with Pegida. Mr Lucke wants to lead alone, but Ms Petry and Mr Adam have resisted him. In a compromise, Mr Lucke will take over as boss only next December.德国新选项党的兴起缘于对欧元的反对。一些领导人,包括来自汉堡的汉斯奥拉夫汉高希望继续使用欧元。但是,尤其在德国东部地区,该党利用民粹主义影射政治避难者、移民以及同性恋群体。该党的前辈——勃兰登堡的Alexander Gauland公然和Pegida“秀恩爱”。这使得新选项党内部更加紧张。该党有三个领导,经济学教授Bernd Lucke反对使用欧元,来自萨克森州的商人Frauke Petry以及之前是记者同样持Pegida的Konrad Adam。Lucke希望能够独自领导新选项党,但是一直受到Petry和Adam的牵制。折中之后,Bernd Lucke只能于明年12月份接任领袖一职。German democracy is responding without hysteria. Marchers against Pegida have recently far outnumbered those for it. The centre-left Social Democrats and Greens refuse to debate with Pegida, and Chancellor Angela Merkel, leader of the centre-right Christian Democrats, has condemned it. Others are open to dialogue. One Christian Democrat, Jens Spahn, even joined a televised debate with Kathrin Oertel, one of Pegidas organisers.德国的民主制度对于这件事情的回应十分克制。如今反对Pegida的游行数量已经远远超出持者的游行。中左的社会民主党和绿党拒绝与Pegida对话,而中右派基督教民主党领袖——总理默克尔却谴责该运动。其他人则保持开放的态度。Jens Spahn,这位基督教民主党人士甚至参加了一个与Pegida组织者之一—Kathrin Oertel对话的电视栏目。That was a big step for a group that had previously refused to talk to the media. Its marchers chant “Lügenpresse” (“lying press”), a term once used by the Nazis. Yet on the very day of the cancelled march, Pegida held its first-ever press conference. In the public glare, its leaders tone down their language. When confronted, their counter-arguments seem weak. Asked why Saxons should worry about Islam when only 1% of Saxonys population is Muslim, Ms Oertel said some Germans march for the rainforest though Germany has none.这个举动为那些拒绝在媒体上发表观点的党派迈出了一大步。其游行者高呼曾经为纳粹使用过的“Lügenpresse”(“大话新闻”)。然而,就在取消游行的那一天,Pegida举行了首次新闻发布会。万众瞩目下,他们的领导人故意让自己的语气缓和。但在面对质疑时,他们的反驳又显得无力。当被问及他们为什么要在萨克森州仅有1%的人口是穆斯林的情况要担心伊斯兰教时,Oertel说尽管德国没有热带雨林,但仍有德国人为保护热带雨林而游行。The gradual conflation of the AfD and Pegida is a new and worrying phenomenon. There must never be a legitimate party to the right of the CSU, the Christian Democrats Bavarian sister party, said Franz Josef Strauss, a longtime leader of Bavaria, with Germanys Nazi past in mind. Such a party has now arrived, and could enter the Bundestag in 2017.德国新选项党和Pegida日益要好着实是一个令人担忧的新问题。巴伐利亚州的长期领导者Franz Josef Strauss对纳粹始终耿耿于怀,他认为,基社盟作为巴伐利亚的执政党,绝不会再有第二个政党取得像基社盟党—基督教民主党的地位,尤其该党还有纳粹倾向。但是他担心的事情似乎已经到来,新选项党有可能在2017年进入联邦议院。译者:胡雅琳 校对:唐宇译文属译生译世 /201505/377581

Austerity in Portugal葡萄牙的紧缩政策More pain, less gain痛苦更多,收益更少Yet another austerity budget raises concerns about future growth但是另一轮预算紧缩引发了对未来发展的担忧In happier days before the euro crisis, one government in Lisbon rebranded the Algarve as the Allgarve, hoping to appeal to English-speaking tourists. Now a Portuguese wit suggests rebranding the whole country as Poortugal.在欧元危机到来之前,日子还较为愉快,里斯本政府还将阿尔加维改名为Allgarve,希望吸引讲英语的游客。而如今,聪明的葡萄牙人建议,把整个葡萄牙改名为“穷葡萄牙”(poortugal).Amid furious protests and thundering editorials, such mordant humour was a restrained response to the draft 2013 budget that Vitor Gaspar, the finance minister, presented on October 15th. To meet the targets agreed to by the “troika” of the European Union, European Central Bank and IMF, he wants “enormous” tax increases, including the raising of average income-tax rates by as much as a third.财政部长维克多–加斯帕尔(Vitor Gaspar)于10月15日提交的2013年预算草案引发了强烈的抗议和雷鸣般的社论,在这种背景下,这一辛辣的幽默仅仅是对这一草案的委婉回应。为了达成得到三大巨头----欧盟,欧洲央行和国际货币基金组织同意的目标,加斯帕尔想要极大的提高税收,其中包括提高将收入税税率提高三分之一。Seldom have protesters, economists and politicians been so united in describing the plans: “brutal”, “a crime against the middle class”, a “fiscal atomic bomb”. Few agree with Mr Gaspar’s claim that “this is the only possible budget” and that to question it is to risk being subjected to a “dictatorship of debt” with Portugal condemned to depend on its official creditors indefinitely.抗议者,经济学家和政客很少如此团结。他们一致将这项计划描述为“残酷的”,“反中产阶级的犯罪”,一颗“财政原子弹”。加斯帕尔称,“这是唯一可能的预算”,质疑这项预算就是要冒险遭受“债务独裁”,葡萄牙会因无限依赖官方债权人受到谴责。但是很少有人会同意他的观点。Yet most voters would agree with Mr Gaspar that to default on the country’s debt, as the radical left advocates, would be “catastrophic”. Even so, recent protests have been swelled by tens of thousands of mainstream voters who believe that squeezing working families is not just unnecessarily painful but is also choking off growth.但是大多数选民会同意加斯帕尔的看法,认为如果像极右派提倡的那样进行债务违约的话将会带来“灾难性的”后果。但即使如此,近期成千上万的主流选民还是加强了抗议,他们认为压榨工薪阶层家庭不仅会带来没有必要的伤害,还会扼杀增长。The critics have latched on to the latest outlook from the IMF in which the fund argues that, in today’s economic climate, fiscal consolidation is having a bigger negative impact on growth than usual. The opposition Socialists believe this perfectly describes Portugal’s predicament. They want more time to meet budget targets, on top of an extra year granted last month. More worrying for Pedro Passos Coelho, the prime minister, is that the IMF line is echoed by President Anibal Cavaco Silva, also from the centre-right, who has written that it is wrong to pursue deficit goals “at any cost”.批评者抓住了国际货币基金组织最新的展望,该基金会称,在如今的经济形势下,财政巩固带来的消极影响要比平常的时候更大。社会主义反对者认为,这极为恰当的描述了葡萄牙的困境。除去上月同意增加的一年外,他们想要更多的时间来实现预算目标。而更令总理佩德罗·帕索斯·科埃略担心的是,国际货币基金组织的说法得到了极右派总统阿尼巴尔·卡瓦科·席尔瓦(Anibal Cavaco Silva)的赞成,他曾用写过,“不惜任何代价追求”追求赤字目标是错误的。Another concern is the rift in the coalition over the budget. The conservative People’s Party, junior partner to Mr Passos Coelho’s Social Democrats, wants more public-spending cuts (new revenues account for 80% of the 2013 fiscal adjustment). The two parties must vote together to get the budget through parliament. But Mr Gaspar insists there is “no room for manoeuvre”.另一个担忧是联合政府在预算问题上的分歧。芭苏丝·科埃略(Passos Coelho)领导的社会民主党的初级合作伙伴保守人民党想要进一步削减公共开(2013年预算调整中,新收入占据80%)。两党必须共同投票让议会通过预算。但是加斯帕尔坚持“不允许耍任何花招”。Some say that his intransigence is more for form than for fiscal doctrine. Unlike Greece, Portugal has gained much kudos in Brussels and Berlin for being a model pupil for the euro zone. That could help it if and when the Spanish government requests a bail-out—and starts to argue with the troika about whether ever more fiscal austerity is really sensible.有人说,他拒绝妥协更多的是做做样子,而不是出于财政理论。与希腊不同,葡萄牙一直是欧元区里的模范生,在布鲁塞尔和柏林都获得了很多赞赏。如果西班牙政府要求紧急援助,并且开始与三巨头争论进一步的财政紧缩政策是否真正明智,或在出现这种情况的时候,葡萄牙会因此受益。 翻译:孙齐圣译文属译生译世 /201608/459244

  The amount of homework for some elementary school students is nearly three times the recommended amount, according to the American Journal of Family Therapy. 根据美国家庭治疗杂志的报道,一些小学生的家庭作业量是推荐量的近三倍。Most educators believe that the appropriate daily amount of homework for kids between kindergarten and second grade is 10 to 20 minutes. 大多数教育工作者认为,对于幼儿园到二年级的孩子,适当的每日家庭作业量为10至20分钟。For children, homework is a good tool to teach daily responsibilities and routine, but creating more work isnt necessarily going to create more achievement. 对于孩子们,家庭作业是教会日常责任和工作的好方法,但更多的工作不一定会创造更多的成就。According to child psychologist Lisa Damour, “Teachers are under pressure, which means students will be under pressure.; 儿童心理学家莉萨表示,教师有压力,这就意味着学生将受到压力。Most psychologists and teachers believe that the best way for children to spend time at home is with their families having dinners together and going to bed early.大多数心理学家和老师认为,孩子们在家里度过的最好的方式是与家人一起共进晚餐,并且早点上床睡觉。译文属。201608/462776

  Bank regulation监管Capital punishment死刑The latest global capital rules to make banks safer are sensible. Much else that regulators are doing is not为了更加安全而最新设立的全球资金规则是合理的。监管机构做得许多其他事却并不合理。GIVEN how many things went wrong at banks during the financial crisis, it is not surprising that regulators have come up with several new rules to set them to rights. On November 10th the Financial Stability Board (FSB), an international body charged with avoiding future crises, unveiled yet another test banks will have to pass—the fifth so far. At the same time Mark Carney, the head of the FSB and governor of the Bank of England, declared that these measures, if taken together and implemented properly, would “substantially complete the job” of “fixing the faultlines” that led to the crash.考虑到金融危机时期有多少出现问题,监管者们提出几个新的规则让归位也不足为奇。11月10日,金融稳定委员会,一个防止未来危机发生的国际组织,推出了另一项必须通过的测试—迄今为止第五项测试。同时,金融稳定委员会会长兼英格兰总裁马克·坎尼宣布,这些措施如果同时采取并且合理执行将会“基本完成”修复导致崩溃的错误这一职能。Broadly speaking, he is right. The alphabet soup of rules devised in recent years makes it much harder for banks to be run in the risky manner that was all too common before 2007. New liquidity requirements prevent them from borrowing money on fickle overnight markets while lending it on for 30 years, the practice that felled Northern Rock, the first British bank to fail during the crisis. New rules on capital, including the one unveiled by Mr Carney this week, will force banks to have a decent safety buffer so that tiny changes in the value of their assets do not cast them automatically into the arms of the state.广泛意义来讲,他是正确的。近年来,逐条修改的规则使得更难以危险的方式运行,这些方式在2007年以前是非常常见的。新的现金储备防止向瞬息万变的隔夜市场借款,再向外贷出为期的30年贷款。 那个做法使得英国首家北岩在危机中倒闭了。现金方面的新规则包括坎尼本周推出的迫使拥有可靠的安全缓冲,这样其资产的微小变化将不会自动使他们处于备战状态。Better yet, the latest measure ensures that if a banks shareholders are wiped out there will in future be an additional tier of investors standing between failure and a taxpayer-funded bail-out. “Total loss-absorbing capacity”, in the regulatory argot, will soon include not just the money invested by shareholders, but also that lent by bondholders, most of whom avoided any losses during the crisis thanks to government bail-outs. It is the centrepiece of the FSBs efforts to make sure that no bank is “too big to fail” (see article).更好的是,最新的措施确保如果的股东在那儿倒下,从今以后会成为站在失败和纳税人资助的紧急财政援助之间的投资者的一个额外联系。“总的吸收损失能力”,监管体系的行话,不就将不仅仅包括股东投资的钱,还将包括债券持有人借出的部分,多亏了政府的紧急财政援助,大多数在危机时避免了损失。这是金融稳定委会努力确保没有“大而不倒”的重点。(另见文章)This extra capital is all-important. Before 2007, some banks had such a thin loss-absorbing cushion that a 2% fall in the value of their assets put them out of business. Imposing losses on their creditors involved long and uncertain lawsuits, and so was seldom attempted during moments of crisis. Instead, to stop the panic sping, governments resorted to bail-outs. Under the new dispensation, however, “systemically important” banks should be able to endure a 20% fall in the value of their assets before placing panicky calls to the central bank.这笔额外的资金是非常重要的。2007年以前,一些只有极小的吸收亏损的缓冲,这样他们资产只要下降2%,他们就要歇业了。将损失强加在债权人身上涉及冗长而又不确定的诉讼,所以在危机时候很少实施。相反,为了阻止恐慌扩散,政府采取紧急援助。但是在新的法律下,“系统性重要”在向中央发出恐慌警报前,应该可以承受20%的资产减少。The need to hold more capital makes banks less profitable—but that is no bad thing: the mammoth profits they made in the boom years were predicated on the subsidy they were receiving in the form of implicit government backing. It may also make them shrink, since one way to raise capital relative to assets is to hold fewer assets. That, too, is for the best, as long as people and businesses can find other ways to borrow. Relying more on stock- and bond-issuance would enable the economy to be financed at much less risk to the taxpayer.需要持有更多的资本使得获益更难——但那不是件坏事:他们在蓬勃年代获得的巨大收益基于他们以秘密的政府持形式所收到的津贴。它也会导致他们缩水,因为一个增加资产资本的方法是持有更少的资产。那也是好的,只要人们和公司能够找到其他方式借钱。更多地依赖股票和债券会使经济对纳税人来讲风险更小。If they want to stay in business, banks will also have to ask shareholders and the bond markets for more money. Attracting the capital that will make banking safer will be hard, with profit forecasts so anaemic. However it will also be made unnecessarily difficult by capricious behaviour from the very watchdogs who are ordering banks to raise the funds.如果他们想要继续做生意,还要问股东和债券市场要更多钱。吸引使得更加安全的资本将会更困难,因为利润预见很贫乏。但是,命令增加资金的监察机构多变的行为也未必会使更困难。One problem is the endless tinkering with the rules. For all Mr Carneys talk of finishing the job, global regulators have yet to set the minimum level for several of their new capital requirements. National regulators are just as bad. No bank can be certain how much capital it will need in a few years time. Pension funds and insurance companies rightly fret that even a tiny tweak in any of the new regulatory tests is enough to send a banks share price plummeting (or, less often, rocketing).一个问题是无止境的修补规则。对于坎尼关于结束这项工作的讲话,全球监管机构还没有设置几项最低资本需求。国家监管机构情况也一样糟糕。没有能确定几年后需要多少资本。养老基金和保险公司有理由烦恼,新的管理测试里一个极小的变化就足以使得的股价骤降(或者极少情况下剧增)。The dark side of banker-bashing家谴责的阴暗面The other problem is the multi-billion-dollar fines levied by regulators in America and Europe, seemingly calibrated not to the scale of the alleged wrongdoing but to banks ability to pay. This week six big international banks agreed to hand over billions for manipulating foreign-exchange markets, with little explanation of how the penalties were calculated. New edicts unrelated to capital, such as Americas assaults on money-laundering and tax-dodging, add yet more obligations.另一个问题是美国和欧洲监管机构征收的好几十亿的罚款,似乎不是以据称的不法行为为衡量标准,而是以付能力为准的。本周,6家大型国际同意上交几十亿,理由是操纵外汇市场,没有解释惩罚是怎么计算的。新的与资本不相关的法令,如美国打击洗钱和逃税的法令,增加了更多的义务。Banks can hardly be surprised that regulators have rewritten the rule-book and then thrown it at them. But, for the health of the system, the rules need to be predictable, transparent and consistent. Incredibly, the regulations emanating from Americas Dodd-Frank financial reforms are still being written, more than four years after the law was passed. Europe is scarcely better. Impose demanding capital rules, but stop adding more red tape: that should be the mantra of bank regulators just about everywhere.毫不怀疑,监管机构已经重写了规则,然后扔向他们。但是,为了这个体系的健康,这些规则必须可预测、透明并且一致。难以置信的,源自美国多德弗兰克金融改革的监管机构还在写,而该项法案通过已经有4年了。欧洲情况也没有更好。强加的资本规则,但是不再增加更多的繁文缛节:那是世界各地监管者的咒语。译者:王丹培 译文属译生译世 /201411/344788。

  

  Higher education高等教育Is college worth it?读大学还值得吗?Too many degrees are a waste of money. The return on higher education would be much better if college were cheaper太多的学位只是浪费金钱。如果读大学更便宜,高等教育的回报会更高WHEN LaTisha Styles graduated from Kennesaw State University in Georgia in 2006 she had ,000 of student debt. This obligation would have been easy to discharge if her Spanish degree had helped her land a well-paid job. But there is no shortage of Spanish-speakers in a nation that borders Latin America. So Ms Styles found herself working in a clothes shop and a fast-food restaurant for no more than an hour.2006年当 LaTisha Styles从 佐治亚州的 Kennesaw州立大学毕业的时候,她欠下35000美元的学生贷款。如果她的西班牙语学位能够帮助她获得报酬优厚的工作的话,债务会很容易偿清。但在这个与拉丁美洲接壤的国度,从来不缺能说西语的人。所以Styles女士为了每小时不高于11美元的薪水,沦落装零售和快餐店。Frustrated, she took the gutsy decision to go back to the same college and study something more pragmatic. She majored in finance, and now has a good job at an investment consulting firm. Her debt has swollen to ,000, but she will have little trouble paying it off.受挫碰壁的她勇敢地作出决定,重新回到大学学习更为实用的课程。她主修财务,现在在一个投资咨询公司得到了一份好工作。她的学生债务“膨胀”到65000元,但在未来偿清债务问题不大。As Ms Styless story shows, there is no simple answer to the question “Is college worth it?” Some degrees pay for themselves; others dont. American schoolkids pondering whether to take on huge student loans are constantly told that college is the gateway to the middle class. The truth is more nuanced, as Barack Obama hinted when he said in January that “folks can make a lot more” by learning a trade “than they might with an art history degree”. An angry art history professor forced him to apologise, but he was right.正如Styles的故事表现的这样,对于“读大学是否值得?”这个问题并没有简单的。有些学位物有所值,而有些则不是。美国的在校生们在权衡是否要背上巨额学生贷款负担时, 经常被告知大学是通往中产阶级道路的门户。而事实更为微妙,正如奥巴马1月讲话中暗示的那样,相比获得一个艺术史学位,通过学习一门技术“人们可以赚得更多”,。一位愤怒的艺术史教授要求他道歉,但奥巴马是对的。College graduates aged 25 to 32 who are working full time earn about ,500 more annually than their peers who have only a high school diploma, according to the Pew Research Centre, a think-tank. But not all degrees are equally useful. And given how much they cost—a residential four-year degree can set you back as much as ,000 a year—many students end up worse off than if they had started working at 18.年龄在25到32岁之间全职工作的大学毕业生,相比只有高中文凭的同龄人每年平均多赚17500美元,根据智库PEW研究中心的说法。但并非所有的学位都一样的有用处。并且根据获得学位的成本----一个住校的四年学位可能每年倾尽你6万美元--很多学生相比如果18岁就开始工作,境况更糟。PayScale, a research firm, has gathered data on the graduates of more than 900 universities and colleges, asking them what they studied and how much they now earn. The company then factors in the cost of a degree, after financial aid (discounts for the clever or impecunious that greatly reduce the sticker price at many universities). From this, PayScale estimates the financial returns of many different types of degree (see chart).一个研究公司PayScale已经收集超过900所大学的毕业生的数据,询问他们学到了什么以及现在收入的多少。公司然后在排除财政补贴(对于天资聪颖或一文不名的学生的补助很大程度上削减了很多大学学费的“吊牌价”)后,把获得学位的成本计入考量。在财政补贴。据此, PayScale公司评估许多不同学位类型的财务回报。Hard subjects pay off困难的课程付出有回报Unsurprisingly, engineering is a good bet wherever you study it. An engineering graduate from the University of California, Berkeley can expect to be nearly .1m better off after 20 years than someone who never went to college. Even the least lucrative engineering courses generated a 20-year return of almost 0,000.不奇怪的是,工科无论是否学习都是一个很好的赌注。加州伯克利大学工科毕业生相比从未读过大学的人预期20年后多赚几乎110万美元。即使最不赚钱的工科课程也会在20年期产生几乎50万美元的回报。Arts and humanities courses are much more varied. All doubtless nourish the soul, but not all fatten the wallet. An arts degree from a rigorous school such as Columbia or the University of California, San Diego pays off handsomely. But an arts graduate from Murray State University in Kentucky can expect to make 7,000 less over 20 years than a high school graduate, after paying for his education. Of the 153 arts degrees in the study, 46 generated a return on investment worse than plonking the money in 20-year treasury bills. Of those, 18 offered returns worse than zero.艺术和人文学科的差异更为多样化。 所有课程毫无疑问可以滋润灵魂,但并非所有学科都会使钱包丰厚。学风严谨的大学例如哥伦比亚大学或加州大学圣迭戈分校的艺术学位收入丰厚。但肯塔基州的Murray州立大学的艺术毕业生,在付完学费后可预期相比高中毕业生在20年只少赚147000元。本项研究中的153个艺术学位,其中有46个产生的投资回报低于将钱投入购买20年期的财政部债权的收益。其中,有18个回报为负值。Colleges that score badly will no doubt grumble that PayScales rankings are based on relatively small numbers of graduates from each institution. Some schools are unfairly affected by the local job market—Murray State might look better if Kentuckys economy were thriving. Universities that set out to serve everyone will struggle to compete with selective institutions. And poor colleges will look worse than rich ones that offer lots of financial aid, since reducing the cost of a degree raises its return.得分很低的院校毫无疑问会嘟哝抱怨PayScale的排名体系基于每个学校数量相对较少的毕业生。一些学校不公平地受到本地就业市场的影响--- 如果肯塔基州的经济蓬勃增长,Murray州立大学的就业也许看起来会好很多。 决心想要务每个学生的大学将要努力和精挑细选的机构激烈竞争。 经费不足的大学相比财大气粗的能提供很多财政资助的学校看起来更糟糕,因为降低获得学位的成本也提升了其收益率。All these caveats are true. But overall, the PayScale study surely overstates the financial value of a college education. It does not compare graduates earnings to what they would have earned, had they skipped college. (That number is unknowable.) It compares their earnings to those of people who did not go to college—many of whom did not go because they were not clever enough to get in. Thus, some of the premium that graduates earn simply reflects the fact that they are, on average, more intelligent than non-graduates.所有的这些附加说明都是真实可信的。但总体来说 PayScale公司的研究一定过度阐述了大学教育的财务价值。研究并没有将毕业生的收入与其所学到的知识相比较,如果他们中途辍学的话。(这个数据不可知。)研究将大学毕业生的收入和那些没有读大学的人相比较---其中很多人没有读大学的原因是不够聪明而不能登堂入室。因此,大学毕业生获得的一些额外收益仅仅是反应了一个事实,那就是平均来说他们比没读过大学的人更为聪明。What is not in doubt is that the cost of university per student has risen by almost five times the rate of inflation since 1983, and graduate salaries have been flat for much of the past decade. Student debt has grown so large that it stops many young people from buying houses, starting businesses or having children. Those who borrowed for a bachelors degree granted in 2012 owe an average of ,400. The Project on Student Debt, a non-profit, says that 15% of borrowers default within three years of entering repayment. At for-profit colleges the rate is 22%. Glenn Reynolds, a law professor and author of “The Higher Education Bubble”, writes of graduates who “may wind up living in their parents basements until they are old enough to collect Social Security.”无可质疑的是自从1983年以来,每个学生读大学的成本相对通胀率已经上升了大约5倍,并且在过去十年多数时间内大学毕业生囊中羞涩。学生贷款增长如此巨大以至于阻碍很多年轻人购房,创业和生养子女。 2012年为获得学士学位而借贷的学生平均负债29400美元。一个非盈利机构“学生贷款工程”说,15%比例的学生在进入还贷程序三年内有违约行为。对于盈利大学,这个比例是22%。一位名为Glenn Reynolds的法律教授,同时也是《高等教育泡沫》一书的作者,把大学毕业生描写为“可能沦落到住进父母的地下室,直到年龄足够大到可以去领社保救济金”。That is an exaggeration: students enrolling this year who service their debts will see them forgiven after 20 years. But the burden is still heavy for many. It does not help that nearly a third of those who take out such loans eventually drop out of college; they must still repay their debts. A third transfer to different schools. Many four-year degrees drag on longer, and so cost more. Overall, the six-year graduation rate for four-year institutions is only 59%.这有夸大之嫌,今年招收的得到贷款务的新生可预见在20年后还清贷款。但(还贷)负担对许多人来说依然沉重。这对其中三分之一得到贷款却最终辍学的人不会有帮助;他们依然要偿还债务。另有三分之一的学生转到别的学校。许多四年的学位可能会拖得更久,因此也会耗费更多。总体说来,四年的大学机构六年的毕业率只有59%。The lousy national job market does not help, either. A report by McKinsey, a consultancy, found that 42% of recent graduates are in jobs that require less than a four-year college education. Some 41% of graduates from the nations top colleges could not find jobs in their chosen field; and half of all graduates said they would choose a different major or school.糟糕的国内就业市场更是雪上加霜。咨询机构麦肯锡发布的报告显示,42%的最近毕业的学生从事的工作,大学四年的教育并非必须。国家顶尖学府的41%的毕业生不能在选择的领域找到职位,并且一半大学毕业生说他们会选择另外的专业或学校。Chegg, a company that provides online help to students, collaborated the study. Dan Rosensweig, its boss, says that only half of graduates feel prepared for a job in their field, and only 39% of managers feel that students are y for the workforce. Students often cannot write clearly or organise their time sensibly. Four million jobs are unfilled because jobseekers lack the skills employers need.给大学生提供在线教育帮助的Chegg公司参与了这项研究合作。公司老板Dan Rosensweig说,只有一半的毕业生觉得在专业相关领域的工作做好了准备,只有39%的经理人认为毕业生已经做好了工作准备。毕业生经常不能清晰地写作或合理地安排时间。因为求职者缺乏雇主所需技能,有400万的工作岗位虚席以待。Grading the graders给评分者评分For all their flaws, studies like PayScales help would-be students (and their parents) make more informed choices. As Americans start to realise how much a bad choice can hurt them, they will demand more transparency. Some colleges are providing it, prodded by the federal government. For example, the University of Texas recently launched a website showing how much its graduates earn and owe after five years.尽管有这么多的缺陷, 像PayScale公司的研究在帮助准毕业生们(及其父母)做出有信息依据的选择。当美国人开始意识到一个错误的决定会造成损害,他们也会要求更多的信息透明度。一些大学在联邦政府敦促下,提供信息透明。例如,德州大学最近开发了一个网页显示其毕业生在五年后的盈亏。“Opportunity”, said Mr Obama on April 2nd, “means making college more affordable.” In time, transparency and technology will force many colleges to cut costs and raise quality. Online education will accelerate the trend. In 2012, 6.7m students were taking at least one online course. Such courses allow students to listen to fine lecturers without having to pay for luxurious dormitories or armies of college bureaucrats. They will not replace traditional colleges—face-to-face classes are still valuable—but they will force them to adapt. Those that offer poor value for money will have to shape up, or disappear.奥巴马总统在4月2日所说,“机遇意味着使得大学更容易负担得起”。 透明度和科学技术会使得很多大学及时裁剪开销并提高教学品质。在线教育会加速这个趋势。2012年有670万学生至少参加一项在线课程。这样的课程允许学生听到优秀的讲座,而不用为奢侈公寓和行政人员埋单。在线课程并不会取代传统大学--面对面的课堂教育依然非常有价值--但在线课程会迫使其适应潮流。那些提供较少经济价值的将要开始改进,或者消失。译者:鲁里奥 译文属译生译世 /201601/423938Around the world many cities are aly taking action to adapt to the future impacts of climate change. 世界各地的许多城市开始采取行动,以适应未来气候变化的影响。Some of these efforts include energy efficiency, new drainage systems, and improved transportation infrastructure. 这些努力包括能源效率、新的排水系统以及改进的交通基础设施。C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group is a global network for cities committed to addressing climate change. C40城市气候变化领导小组是一个致力于应对气候变化的全球城市网络。One of the biggest issues facing major cities, is that not all cities have the same resources to address the issues. 大城市面临的最大问题之一,就是并不是所有的城市都有同样的资源来解决问题。New studies show that in general, cities in developed nations, such as London or New York, all spend around 0.22 percent of their total GDP on climate adaptation, 新的研究表明一般情况下,发达国家的城市如伦敦或纽约,花费约占生产总值的百分之0.22应对气候适应,whereas cities in developing nations, such as Jakarta and Lagos, all spend about 0.15 percent.而在发展中国家城市,如雅加达和拉各斯,花费约百分之0.15。译文属。201603/428949

  American defense officials told N News an unknown number of U.S. Special Operations Forces were killed or wounded in two separate incidents in southern Afghanistan on Tuesday. 美国国防部官员告诉N,周二阿富汗南部发生两起独立事件,造成人数不详的美国特种作战部队人员伤亡。The forces were involved in a counter-terrorism operation in Helmand province when they came under attack. 遭遇袭击时,部队正在参与赫尔曼德省的反恐行动。According to the officials an unknown number of Americans were wounded in that incident. 据美国官员称,在那起事件中有人数不详的美国人受伤。The officials said a U.S. medevac chopper called in to recover casualties came under mortar and small-arms fire.该官员表示,一架美国救伤直升机在迫击炮和小型武器的火力下前往救助伤员。Speaking on condition of anonymity, the officials added it was not clear if the helicopter had been hit by enemy fire or whether any casualties were sustained in the landing zone.不愿透露姓名的情况下,该官员补充道,目前还不清楚直升机是否被敌人炮火袭击,或者在着陆区内有没有人员伤亡。译文属。201601/420868

  

  

  

  

  

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