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昆明第一医院剖腹产价格迪庆市卵巢性不孕好吗迪庆州藏医院无痛人流怎么样 If youre not aly convinced that regular exercise is important to stay healthy, now there is yet another reason to break a sweat, especially if youre a woman: breast cancer.如果你还不是十分相信经常锻炼对于保持健康很重要,现在就有让自己大汗淋漓的另外一个理由,尤其是如果你是一个女人的话:它就是乳腺癌。Several studies have linked exercise to lowering the risk of developing breast cancer.一些研究发现运动能降低患乳腺癌的风险。Considering that breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women, these findings are nothing to shrug about.考虑到乳腺癌是女性的第二常见癌症,这些发现没有什么可以规避的。First, regular exercise reduces the risk of breast cancer by helping women to maintain a healthy and consistent body weight.首先,经常运动可以降低患乳腺癌的风险,帮助女性保持健康及体重稳定。Post-menopausal women who have gained more than twenty pounds since the age of eighteen are forty percent more likely to develop breast cancer.从18岁已经增加超过20磅绝经后的女性患乳腺癌的几率高达40%。Women who gain seventy or more pounds in their adult years are eighty percent more likely to develop breast cancer.成年期增加70磅或更多的女性患乳腺癌的几率高达80%。Another study suggests that the correlation between breast cancer and body weight may have much to do with female hormones produced by body fat.另一项研究表明乳腺癌和体重之间的关联会影响身体脂肪所产生的雌性激素。Higher levels of estrogen, as well as testosterone, have been demonstrated to increase ones risk of developing breast cancer.已经明过度的雌激素,以及睾酮会增加人们患上乳腺癌的风险。However, exercise significantly reduces the levels of these hormones by burning body fat, which produces the hormones.然而,运动明显通过燃烧产生激素的体内脂肪降低了这些激素的水平。So the more you exercise, the more fat you burn, hence the lower your hormone levels, and the lower your risk of developing breast cancer.所以越锻炼,消耗的脂肪越多,因此能够降低你的激素水平,从而降低患乳腺癌的风险。How much exercise is necessary?那练多少就合适了?Just thirty minutes of exercise each day or three to four hours a week could lower ones risk of breast cancer by about twenty percent.只要每天锻炼30钟或一个星期三至四小时就能够降低20%患乳腺癌的几率。And exercising more than four hours a week may further lower your risk.而一个星期锻炼4个多小时可能会进一步降低你的风险。Keep in mind, however, that no amount of exercise can guarantee you wont develop cancer.不过,要记住,不是再多的运动就可以保你不会患上癌症。Certain risk factors such as genetic make-up and environmental exposures are uncontrollable. 某些如基因构成及环境暴露的风险因素是无法控制的。 201310/261420昆明市西山区妇幼保健做检查和人流一共多少钱

曲靖市第一人民医院清宫怎么样Business商业报道Taking its medicine自食其药A drug giant coughs up to settle bribery charges制药巨头被迫解决行贿指控IN AMERICA, it was once common for drug firms to offer doctors perks to encourage them to prescribe their pills.在美国,制药公司用提成来鼓励医生给病人使用他们的药品曾是司空见惯的事情。Regulators now frown on such iffy sales techniques, and drug firms have more or less stopped using them.如今,监管者对于这种可疑的销售手段感到不满,因而制药公司不得不或多或少地停止使用这些销售伎俩。But in emerging markets, it is a different story,但是在新兴市场中,它却是另一番景象。as a settlement on August 7th between Americas Department of Justice and Pfizer, a big American drug firm, made clear.在8月7号,美国司法部门和美国的一家大型制药公司辉瑞之间的事件更清晰地解释了这种现象。In China Pfizer established a club that provided high-prescribing doctors with all kinds of entertainment under the guise of attending conferences.在中国,辉瑞公司建立了一个俱乐部,借助参加会议之名以各种形式款待那些开药量大的医生。In Kazakhstan Pfizer awarded an exclusive distribution deal to a local firm after it was told there was no other way to secure government approval for a Pfizer product.在哈萨克斯坦,辉瑞公司在得知没有其他方式来确保政府同意使用它的产品之后,它把独家销售权授予给了当地的一家公司以便出售其药品。Unfortunately for Pfizer, such acts violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, an American law that criminalises bribery abroad.然而不幸的是,辉瑞的这些行为违反了《反国外行贿法规》,这是美国的一个判定在国外行贿的法律。Doctors in many of the countries in question are state employees, making the gifts bribes to government officials.在上述所谈及的很多国家中,医生属于政府机关工作人员,而辉瑞公司正在向这些政府官员进行送礼行贿。This week Pfizer agreed to pay a fine to settle corruption charges and to disgorge related illegally earned profits to the Securities and Exchange Commission.这周,辉瑞公司同意通过交付罚款来解决腐败指控并且向券交易委员会交出相关的违法赚得的利润。The settlement, which will cost it m or so, covers similar offences committed by Wyeth, another drug firm, before it was acquired by Pfizer in .为了解决此事件,辉瑞公司将会花费约六千万美元,这其中包括惠氏公司贿赂行为的罚款。惠氏公司于年被辉瑞公司收购,此前它曾涉嫌海外贿赂。Johnson amp; Johnson, another big drugmaker, paid m last year to settle civil and criminal bribery charges.另一个制药大亨强生公司,在去年花费七千万美元来解决民事和刑事上的行贿指控。On August 6th Teva, an Israeli firm that is the worlds largest generic drugmaker, said it was co-operating with SEC investigators.在8月6日,以色列这家世界上最大的仿制制药商梯瓦制药公司说它正在配合美国交会的调查者工作。Indeed, eight of the worlds ten biggest drug firms have warned of potential costs related to charges of corruption in markets abroad, according to Reuters.事实上,据路透社称,世界上十大制药公司中的八家都忧虑地称有可能会因国外市场中的腐败指控而花掉大笔的钱。So Pfizers behaviour seems to have been normal for the industry, not an aberration.因此在这个产业中,辉瑞公司的行为似乎是正常的,并非一个例外。Citing the settlement, regulators will crow that the FCPA is being enforced more vigorously than at any time since it became law in 1977.监管者借助这次的案例来告知制药商们一个信息,那就是自《反国外贿赂法规》1977年成为法律以来,They will also hope that it is evidence that their new carrot-and-stick approach is starting to work.相较于以往的任何时候,它在当今被赋予了更大的惩罚力度。Most successful prosecutions in the past have been the result of whistle-blowing or a lucky break;他们同样寄希望于这个软硬兼施的方法能成为行之有效的据。regulators have long suspected that many companies have publicly supported the law while privately turning a blind eye to dodgy activities abroad, doubtless assuming that they would never be caught.在过去,大多数成功的起诉都被认为是告密或者巧合的结果,因而监管者一直怀疑很多公司表面上在遵纪守法而背地里却在国外做一些狡猾的买卖,多半在自认为不会露出马脚。The new approach is designed to encourage companies to police themselves, by punishing them only lightly when they turn themselves in.这个新方法旨在鼓励公司进行自我监督,而只有他们坦白自首时才会从轻发落。The relatively small fine imposed on Pfizer was the Justice Departments way of showing that firms that co-operate will be treated leniently, says Ben Heineman of Harvards Kennedy School of Government.哈佛大学肯尼迪政府学院的Ben Heineman称,辉瑞公司相对较小的罚款金额表明了司法部门会酌情处理那些与它们配合的公司。Pfizer has gone out of its way to placate prosecutors:辉瑞公司已经一改以往的行事方式来配合检察官们:it has been co-operating on the case since 2004, helping to identify illegal practices throughout its industry.从2004年开始,它一直配合调查此案,帮助检察官们明其在行业中的违法行为。It also oversaw the process that uncovered the misbehaviour at Wyeth.它还监督了揭露惠氏药厂不正当行为的审理过程。The regulators have accepted Pfizers claim that the offences were committed by local staff acting without the knowledge of head office in America.监管者已经接受了辉瑞公司的说法,即声称本土员工的犯罪行为是在美国总部公司不知情的情况下进行的。This follows Aprils decision by the SEC to charge a senior executive at Morgan Stanley, a bank, with corrupt activity in Shanghai,在它之前是四月份美国监会指控根史坦利投资公司,这家的一名高级主管在上海进行腐败活动的行为,but not to impose legal penalties on the bank, which tipped off regulators about its rogue employee.但美国监会决定不对这家进行法律制裁,因为这家向监管者上报了其违纪人员的情况。A few more examples of such regulatory forbearance and perhaps business will get the message.此类监管宽容的例子还有很多,相信这些案例会给商业界一些启示。 /201308/251428楚雄州妇幼保健院男性孕前检查 普洱市人民医院做彩超需要花多少钱

昆明送子鸟输卵管不通技术好不好Books and Arts; Book Review;Human decision-making; Not so smart now;文艺;书评;人类的决策;聪明不在;Thinking Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman.《思考,快与慢》丹尼尔·卡尼曼著。Towards the end of “Thinking, Fast and Slow”, Daniel Kahneman laments that he and his late collaborator, Amos Tversky, are often credited with showing that humans make “irrational” choices. That term is too strong, he says, to describe the variety of mental mishaps to which people systematically fall prey. Readers of his book may disagree. Mr Kahneman, an Israeli-American psychologist and Nobel economics laureate, has delivered a full catalogue of the biases, shortcuts and cognitive illusions to which our species regularly succumbs. In doing so he makes it plain that Homo economicus—the rational model of human behaviour beloved of economists—is as fantastical as a unicorn.在《思考:快与慢》一书的结尾之处,丹尼尔卡内曼说对人们的一些赞誉感到悲痛,人们赞赏他和他已故的合作者阿莫斯特沃斯基发现了人类做“无理性决定”,他说,用这个说法来形容“人们可能受到的各种方的面精神问题的困扰太严重了”。这本书的读者也许不赞同这个说法。卡内曼拥有以色列和美国双重国籍,心理学家,诺贝尔经济学奖获得者,他将人类通常会有的偏见,心理捷径,和认知幻象进行了系统全面的分类并清晰的阐释了新鲜的“经济人”的概念(Homo economicus),这是经济学家所钟爱的人类行为的理性分类。In one experiment described by Mr Kahneman, participants asked to imagine that they have been given 50 pound behave differently depending on whether they are then told they can “keep” 20 pound or must “lose” 30 pound—though the outcomes are identical. He also shows that it is more threatening to say that a disease kills “1,286 in every 10,000 people”, than to say it kills “24.14% of the population”, even though the second mention is twice as deadly. Vivid language often overrides basic arithmetic.卡内曼描述了一个实验:要求实验参与者想象他们每人得到50英镑,尽管结果一样—都被告知他们只能留下20镑,而必须要损失30镑,但他们每个人表现却大不相同。卡内曼还告诉我们,如果说一种疾病使每10000人中有1286人死亡,或者表述为它使占人口总数的24.14%的人死亡,尽管后者的死亡人数是前者的两倍,但前者更有震慑力。形象生动的语言比简单的数字更为感染力。Some findings are downright peculiar. Experimental subjects who have been “primed” to think of money, perhaps by seeing a picture of dollar bills, will act more selfishly. So if someone nearby drops some pencils, these subjects will pick up fewer than their non-primed counterparts. Even obliquely suggesting the concept of old age will inspire people to walk more slowly—though feeling elderly never crossed their mind, they will later report.有些实验结果十分奇怪。那些在看到美元的图像,更容易想到钱的人的实验参与者通常会表现得更为自私。如果坐在他们身旁的人有人掉了铅笔,相比较那些没那么容想到钱的人,他们肯弯腰捡起笔的几率要大大降低。这甚至间接地暗示:想到老年的意象会使人们走路速度放缓—尽管他们自己从没有老年的感觉,这些结论稍后将后发布。After all this the human brain looks less like a model of rationality and more like a giddy teenager: flighty, easily distracted and lacking in self-awareness. Yet this book is not a counsel of despair. Its awkward title refers to Mr Kahnemans two-tier model of cognition: “System 1” is quick, intuitive and responsible for the quirks and mistakes described above (and many others). “System 2”, by contrast, is slow, deliberative and less prone to error. System 2 kicks in when we are faced with particularly complex problems, but much of the time it is all too happy to let the impulsive System 1 get its way. (Readers may be reminded of Freuds “id” and “superego”, though Mr Kahneman never mentions this particular intellectual ancestor.)最后,作者得出结论,与其说人类的大脑是理性的集合,还不如说它更像一个轻浮的少年:反复无常,容易分神,缺少自觉意识。当然这本书不是人们悲观的忠告。书的标题有些拗口,但它表明了卡内曼对认知的双层分类模型:“系统一,快速,受直觉引导,易犯上述的错误。相比之下,系统二则缓慢,慎重思考,不易犯错误。只有当我们面临着复杂的问题时,系统二才会启动,更多的时候,是让受直觉影响的系统一来替我们做决定。(读者可能会想到弗洛伊德的“本我”“超我”,但卡内曼在书中压根没有提这位贡献卓著的前人)What, then, is System 1 good for? Rather a lot, it turns out. In a world that often demands swift judgment and rapid decision-making (fight or flight?), a creature who solely relied on deliberative thinking wouldnt last long. Moreover, System 1 generally works well. As Mr Kahneman says, “most of our judgments and actions are appropriate most of the time”. He urges ers to counteract what he considers to be mistakes of System 1 thinking, such as the “loss aversion” that deters people from accepting favourable gambles (such as a 50-50 chance to win 200 dollar or lose 100 dollar). He also recommends checking the performance of an investment portfolio no more than once a quarter, to limit needless anguish over short-term fluctuations and the “useless churning” of shares.那么,系统一适合做什么呢?是:很多。在这个世界里,我们常常需要迅速做出判断,并快速做出决定(开战与否?)一个人不能只是依靠深思熟虑,这样是不行的。并且,系统一通常可以很好的运行。正如卡内曼所说:“我们大部分的判断和决策通常都很合理”他建议读者自觉避免系统一思考方式会犯的错误,例如“讨厌损失”会让人们不愿接受有利可图的打赌(比如,有一半对一半的机会来赢200美元或者损失100美元)他也强烈建议我们每次在观察券投资的行情时考虑的时间不要超过15分钟,这样会减少我们对短期内股价的浮动和调整不必要的担心。Mr Kahneman does not dwell on the possible evolutionary origins of our cognitive biases, nor does he devote much time to considering why some people seem naturally better at avoiding error than others. Still this book, his first for a non-specialist audience, is a profound one. As Copernicus removed the Earth from the centre of the universe and Darwin knocked humans off their biological perch, Mr Kahneman has shown that we are not the paragons of reason we assume ourselves to be. Often hailed as the father of behavioural economics (with Tversky as co-parent), his work has influenced a range of disciplines and has even inspired some policy.卡内曼并没有详述我们认知偏见的进化源头,也没有花太多笔墨解释为什么有些人天生就比其他人善于规避错误。但他的这本书作为给大众的普及型读物是十分出色。正如哥白尼提出了地球是宇宙的中心,达尔文指出人类不是万物之灵,卡内曼也展示了我们人类并没有自己想象的那样充满理性的智慧。卡内曼被人们称为行为经济学之父(和特沃斯基并称),他的理论影响了许多学科,甚至给一些政策的制定提供了参考。But the true consequences of his findings are only starting to emerge. When he presents the poor victims of his experiments with conclusive proof of their errors, the typical reaction is not a chastened pledge to shape up, but confused silence, followed by business as usual. No one likes to be told he is wrong.基于他的发现,其真正结论现在才开始显现出来。当他拿出确凿的据给可怜的实验者们看,来明他们的错误时,人们明显的反应不是发誓改正这些错误,而是非常困惑的保持了沉默,紧接着,一切又回归原样。没有人喜欢别人告诉自己做错了。 /201304/234102 曲靖市第一人民医院四维预约文山州人民医院结婚去打胎花钱吗



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