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2019年12月13日 06:11:09    日报  参与评论()人

宁德做人工授孕多少钱啊三明市结扎复通费用Congratulations are in order to Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom, winners on Monday of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics. 恭喜奥利弗#8226;哈特(Oliver Hart)和本特#8226;霍姆斯特姆(Bengt Holmstrom)——2016年诺贝尔经济学奖(Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics)的得主。Even though economics is not a full-fledged Nobel Prize, it has been earned by some splendid social scientists over the years — including a number of people who are not economists at all, from Herbert Simon and John Nash to Daniel Kahneman and Elinor Ostrom.尽管诺贝尔经济学奖并非根据阿尔弗雷德#8226;诺贝尔的遗嘱所设立,但多年来有一些出色的社会科学家获此殊荣——其中包括一些根本不是经济学家的人,从赫伯特#8226;西蒙(Herbert Simon)和约翰#8226;纳什(John Nash)、到丹尼尔#8226;卡尼曼(Daniel Kahneman)和埃莉诺#8226;奥斯特罗姆(Elinor Ostrom)。Yet this week I would rather discuss a different prize: the Ig Nobel prize for economics. 不过本周我宁愿讨论另一种奖项——搞笑诺贝尔经济学奖。The Ig Nobels are an enormously silly affair: they have been awarded for a study of dinosaur gaits that involved attaching weighted sticks to chickens (the biology prize), for studying stinky feet (medicine) and for figuring out why shower curtains tend to billow inwards when you’re taking a shower (physics).搞笑诺贝尔奖非常愚蠢:生物学奖颁发给一项有关恐龙步态的研究(涉及给鸡捆绑负重棒的方法),医学奖颁发给研究臭脚,物理学奖颁发给探索在你洗澡时浴帘为何往往向里飘的研究。But one of the Ig Nobel’s charms is that this ridiculous research might actually tell us something about the world. 但搞笑诺贝尔奖的魅力之一是,这些荒唐的研究实际上可能反映了这个世界的一些现实。David Dunning and Justin Kruger received an Ig Nobel prize in psychology for their discovery that incompetent people rarely realise they are incompetent; the Dunning-Kruger effect is now widely cited. 大卫#8226;邓宁(David Dunning)和贾斯廷#8226;克鲁格(Justin Kruger)因为发现无能的人很少意识到自己无能而获得搞笑诺贝尔心理学奖;邓宁-克鲁格效应如今被广泛引用。Dorian Raymer and Douglas Smith won an Ig Nobel in physics for their discovery that hair and string have a tendency to become tangled — potentially an important line of research in understanding the structure of DNA. 多里安#8226;雷默(Dorian Raymer)和道格拉斯#8226;史密斯(Douglas Smith)因为发现头发和线绳倾向于缠在一起而得到了搞笑诺贝尔物理学奖,该发现有可能是理解DNA结构的重要线索。Most famously, Andre Geim’s Ig Nobel in physics for levitating a live frog was promptly followed by a proper Nobel Prize in the same subject for the discovery of graphene.最著名的是,安德鲁#8226;海姆(Andre Geim)因为使一只活青蛙悬浮在半空中而得到搞笑诺贝尔物理学奖,不久后便因发现石墨烯赢得了真正的诺贝尔物理学奖。A whimsical curiosity about the world is something to be encouraged. 对这个世界充满异想天开的好奇心应该被鼓励。No wonder that the credo of the Ig Nobel prizes is that they should make you laugh, then make you think. 难怪搞笑诺贝尔奖的信条是它们应该让你发笑,而后引发思考。In 2001, the Ig Nobel committee did just that, awarding the economics prize to Joel Slemrod and Wojciech Kopczuk, who demonstrated that people will try to postpone their own deaths to avoid inheritance tax. 2001年,搞笑诺贝尔奖委员会就是这样做的,把搞笑诺贝尔经济学奖颁发了给乔尔#8226;斯莱姆罗德(Joel Slemrod)和沃伊切赫#8226;科普楚克(Wojciech Kopczuk)。他们二人明,人们将为了避免遗产税而试图推迟自己的死亡。This highlights an important point about the power of incentives — and the pattern has since been discovered elsewhere.这突显了激励的力量这个重要观点,自那以来其他领域也发现了这种行为模式。Alas, most economics Ig Nobel prizes provoke little more than harsh laughter. 可惜,多数搞笑诺贝尔经济学奖只引发了刺耳的笑声。They’ve been awarded to Nick Leeson and Barings Bank, Iceland’s Kaupthing Bank, AIG, Lehman Brothers, and so on. 这些奖项曾经颁发给尼克#8226;里森(Nick Leeson)和巴林(Barings Bank)、冰岛Kaupthing、美国国际集团(AIG)、雷曼兄弟(Lehman Brothers)等。The first economics prize was awarded to Michael Milken, one of the inventors of the junk bond. 首个搞笑诺贝尔经济学奖颁发给了迈克尔#8226;米尔肯(Michael Milken)——垃圾债券的发明者之一。He was in prison at the time.他当时正在监狱刑。Fair game. 这些都没问题。Still, surely there is something in economics that is ludicrous on the surface yet thought-provoking underneath? (The entire discipline, you say? Very droll.)不过,经济学里肯定有一些表明看起来荒唐、但实际上发人深省的道理吧?(你说,整个学科都是如此?非常搞笑。Where is the award for Dean Karlan and Chris Udry? These two bold Yale professors wanted to figure out whether lack of access to crop insurance was damaging Ghana’s agricultural productivity, so they set up an insurance company, sold insurance to Ghanaian farmers, and accidentally got themselves on the hook for half a million dollars if it didn’t rain in Ghana. 迪安#8226;卡兰(Dean Karlan)和克里斯#8226;尤德里(Chris Udry)怎么没有获奖?这两位大胆的耶鲁(Yale)教授想搞清楚的课题是:缺乏购买农作物保险的渠道,是否损害了加纳的农业生产率?于是他们创办了一家保险公司,向加纳农民出售保险,意外地让自己被套牢——如果加纳不下雨的话他们会赔进50万美元。(Happy ending: it rained. (大团圆结局:加纳下雨了。Also, crop insurance is very helpful.)而且,农作物保险非常有用。Psychologists Bernhard Borges, Dan Goldstein, Andreas Ortmann and Gerd Gigerenzer found they could construct a market-beating portfolio of stocks by stopping people on street corners, showing them a list of company names, and asking which they recognised. 心理学家伯恩哈德#8226;尔格斯(Bernhard Borges)、丹#8226;戈尔茨坦(Dan Goldstein)、安德烈亚斯#8226;奥特曼(Andreas Ortmann)和格尔德#8226;希赫伦策(Gerd Gigerenzer)发现,通过拦下街头的行人、向他们展示公司名列表并询问他们认识哪些公司,他们就可以打造一个跑赢大盘的股票投资组合。Surely an Ig Nobel in finance?肯定值得一个搞笑诺贝尔金融奖吧?Another psychologist, Dan Ariely, aly shared an Ig Nobel prize for medicine in 2008 for demonstrating that expensive placebos work better than cheap placebos. 另一位心理学家丹#8226;艾瑞里(Dan Ariely)因为明昂贵安慰剂比便宜安慰剂的效果更好,已经在2008年和他人分享了搞笑诺贝尔医学奖。But in recent research with Emir Kamenica and Drazen Prelec, described in Ariely’s forthcoming book Payoff, Ariely paid people to build robots out of Lego. 但在最近与埃米尔#8226;卡梅尼察(Emir Kamenica)和德拉任#8226;普雷莱茨(Drazen Prelec)的研究(记录在艾瑞里即将出版的新书《Payoff》里)中,艾瑞里雇佣人们用乐高(Lego)搭机器人。The researchers’ aim: to examine the nature of the modern workplace by dismantling the Lego in front of their subjects’ eyes, to see if they could dishearten them. 研究人员的目的是:在研究对象面前拆解乐高积木,观察这是否会让他们灰心,以此来考察现代职场的本质。(They could.) An Ig Nobel in management beckons.(他们确实感到沮丧。)这种成果呼唤一个诺贝尔管理学奖。Richard Thaler deserves an Ig Nobel in economics for his long-running column Anomalies, in which he asked his fellow economists a series of questions that seem straightforward but are enormously difficult for economics to answer. 理查德#8226;塞勒(Richard Thaler)因其长期撰写的专栏《Anomalies》而值得一个搞笑诺贝尔经济学奖。在专栏中,他会问经济学同僚一系列看似显而易见、但以经济学来看非常难回答的问题。Why do investment banks pay high wages even to the receptionists? Why do people overpay in auctions? Why are people often nice to each other? If the Ig Nobel committee wants to repeat the Andre Geim trick, it should hurry up: Thaler may well win the economics Nobel before his Ig Nobel can be awarded.为什么投行甚至会给前台发高薪?为什么人们会在拍卖中超额付?为什么人们经常善待他人?如果搞笑诺贝尔委员会希望重复安德鲁#8226;海姆的经历,那就应该抓紧:塞勒很可能会在获得搞笑诺贝尔奖之前拿到诺贝尔经济学奖。But my preferred candidate for an Ig Nobel prize in economics is Thomas Thwaites. 但是我青睐的搞笑诺贝尔经济学奖候选人是托马斯#8226;思伟茨(Thomas Thwaites)。A few years ago Thwaites set himself the simple-seeming task of replicating from scratch a cheap Argos toaster (retail price: £3.99). 几年前,思伟茨给自己制定了一个看似简单的任务——从零开始制作便宜的Argos面包机(零售价:3.99英镑)。He smelted iron in a microwave, tried to produce plastic from potato starch, and generally made a colossal mess. 他在微波炉里融化铁,试图用土豆淀粉制作塑料,结果总体上是一片狼藉。His toaster cost £1,187.54, resembled a disastrously iced birthday cake and melted when plugged into the mains. 他的面包机花了1187.54英镑,那台面包机就像是一个可怜的生日蛋糕,插上电源后竟然熔化了。(A partial success, says Thwaites.)(部分成功,思伟茨称。Thwaites’s toaster project thus tells us more about the brilliance and dizzying complexity of the interconnected global economy than any textbook could. 因此,相比课本,思伟茨的面包机项目向我们展示了更多关于这个互联互通的全球经济的美妙和令人眼花缭乱的复杂性。He is a shoo-in for the economics Ig Nobel. 他完全应该获得搞笑诺贝尔经济学奖。Perplexingly, however, the Ig Nobel committee awarded him this year’s prize for biology instead after he attempted to live life dressed as a goat. 然而,令人费解的是,在思伟茨尝试打扮成山羊一样生活后,搞笑诺贝尔委员会反而把今年的生物学家颁给了他。How silly.多傻啊。 /201610/472179福州做人流费用都是 The Food Price Index climbed 2.9 percent in September from August, mainly driven by a surge in dairy products prices, according to data released by the ed Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) last Thursday.根据联合国粮食与农业组织上周四发布的数据显示,从今年八月到九月,食品价格指数攀升2.9%,这主要是受到奶制品价格上涨的影响。Prices for grains and cereals, the largest component in the index, fell 1.9 percent, due to good rice harvests in Asia. But that was not enough to offset gains in other sectors.由于亚洲大米收成较好,价格指数中占最大比例的谷物价格下降了1.9%。但是这不足以抵消其他领域的上涨。The biggest increase came from dairy products, which saw prices jump 13.8 percent due to low milk output in Europe.奶制品上涨幅度最大,由于欧洲牛奶产量低,价格攀升了13.8%。Sugar prices also went up, rising 6.7 percent because of bad weather in Brazil, the world#39;s leading sugar producer. Prices for fats and oils, meanwhile, rose by 2.9 percent, and meat prices were flat.作为世界领先的糖类产地,巴西的坏天气导致糖类产量下降,价格上涨6.7%。与此同时,脂肪和油类价格上涨2.9%,肉类价格保持平衡。With the increase in September, the overall index is now 10 percent higher than it was a year ago.伴随九月的上涨,整体食品价格指数同比去年高出10%。The index has now climbed in seven of the last eight months, after nearly two years of steady declines.继两年持续下降后,在过去的八个月里,食品价格指数连续上涨七个月。Notwithstanding the recent increase in prices, FAO#39;s Food Outlook report predicted prices would remain ;well balanced; over the next year, with agriculture production expected to be even.尽管近期价格有所上涨,但是联合国粮食与农业组织前景报告预测称,明年价格仍会保持平衡,农产品产量保持均衡。 /201610/471142福州治精索静脉曲张去哪比较好

三明市治疗多囊卵巢综合症专业医院龙岩试管生男孩费用 3.Put more Garlic in your Diet.3.多吃大蒜Anecdotally we all know that a Mediterranean diet is healthy for us. Mediterranean diets are high in products like olive oil and garlic.相传地中海式饮食十分健康,里面放有大量橄榄油和大蒜。As a result many medical studies have tried to establish whether or not garlic can play a role in reducing blood pressure.因此很多医学专家努力研究大蒜到底有没有降血压的功效。Meta-analysis of these studies has shown that it does seem to have some effect in reducing blood pressure.分析结果发现,大蒜确实能够降血压。The trials showed that garlic supplements, when taken once a day over a period of months, can lower high blood pressure when compared with the results of people taking placebo pills.试验中,一组人每天用含大蒜食物,另一组用安慰剂,几个月后,发现用大蒜组血压确实有所降低。What the research has not done is compare the effectiveness of garlic compared with traditional medications nor has there been research into whether the supplements are effective long term or what dosage gives the optimum results.不过,试验并未对比调查大蒜与传统药物的有效性,也未深入研究大蒜补充物是否长期有效或多大剂量效果最佳。While we would not advise you to bin your prescription and start popping garlic supplements instead it would certainly not harm your health if you were to go to the chemists to buy some garlic supplements and/or use more garlic in your in your diet.虽然我们不会建议你把医生的处方搁置一旁,用大蒜补充物代替,但是让医生给你开一些大蒜补充物,或者平日饮食多吃大蒜,对你的身体绝对没有坏处!2.Chew on Lavender2.吃薰衣草You know lavender – that beautiful purple plant that, if you are lucky enough to live in the right area brings heavenly aromas (and beautiful butterflies) to your garden.薰衣草,花呈紫色,极为漂亮,若住所旁边有一片薰衣草,在花园里就能闻到令人沉醉的香气,甚至能吸引美丽的蝴蝶。If you have lavender you will know exactly how delicate the smell is and how much pleasure it can bring. It turns out, however, that lavender is more than just ornamental.见到薰衣草,你就会知道薰衣草的香气能够使人愉悦。不过,薰衣草可不仅仅只是香气迷人啊!Originally grown for its scent and use in perfumes Lavender has been used for centuries to help people relax, balance their moods and to cure insomnia.几百年来,薰衣草因其香味儿多用于香水,能够让人放松,舒缓心情,以治疗失眠。European medicine women and monks from Roman times onwards were aware of the benefits lavender could bring.自罗马时代起,欧洲的女巫医和僧侣就已经对薰衣草的好处有所了解。Lavender plants were strewn amongst the floor rushes in bedrooms to help people sleep and lavender was used as a herb in cooking and as an ingredient in teas and tisanes.他们把薰衣草撒在地板上助眠,还将薰衣草用于饮食、药茶之中。More recently studies have been undertaken to try to place our understanding of the potential benefits of lavender on a scientific footing.近来,人们对薰衣草进行了多项研究,以图从科学上明薰衣草确实益处颇多。One study gave people lavender oil to smell and recorded their responses both unconscious (such as blood pressure, heart rate etc) and their conscious responses such as their mood. The effect of lavender on the brain was also recorded through the use of EEGs.一项研究给试验者提供薰衣草精油,并记录他们的潜意识(血压、心率等)和意识反应(心情等),同时用EEGs记录薰衣草对大脑的影响。Compared with the placebo oil (sweet almond) the test subjects reported that they felt happier and more relaxed when they sniffed lavender oil. Recordings also showed a drop in blood pressure and heart rate ings.试验者表示,相比使用安慰剂(甜杏仁)而言,使用薰衣草时更为开心、放松,而且记录显示血压和心率也较低。We are not suggesting that you replace all the fragrances you wear and in your home and car with lavender (you will get sick of the smell) but you might benefit from carrying a bottle of Lavender essential oil with you to dab on a handkerchief or tissue to sniff at times when you are feeling particularly stressed.当然,你也不用把家里和车上的所有香料换成薰衣草(那样你肯定会厌烦的),但是你可以随身带一瓶薰衣草精油,感觉紧张的时候擦在手帕或纸巾上闻一闻,会让你放松下来。You might also want to research recipes that use lavender and perhaps drink a cup of lavender tea at bedtime every day (lavender mixes particularly well with green tea).此外,还可以把薰衣草纳入日常饮食,或每天睡前喝一杯薰衣草茶(薰衣草和绿茶配在一起味道极好)。If you enjoy massage you should also consider switching to a lavender based massage oil.若是喜欢,还可以用薰衣草油。1.Quit Smoking1.戒烟This one should be a a no-brainer; however almost 20% of people between 45-64 smoke and 9% over 65 are still smoking.戒烟一事,众所周知,百利而无一害,然而45岁至64岁的人群中,仍有20%的人还在吸烟,65岁以上的老人中,吸烟人数也占到9%。Any guesses why the percentage is cut in half after age 65? I bet it#39;s not because those people finally got the courage to quit. Nope. They dead. Drop the cancer sticks.有人好奇为什么65岁以上吸烟的人数少了一半?肯定不是他们终于鼓起勇气戒烟了。真相是:他们死掉了!所以,赶快戒烟吧!Not only are they proven to give you cancer but smoking raises your blood pressure and heart rate, narrows your arteries and hardens their walls, and makes your blood more likely to clot.吸烟不仅会导致癌症,还会使血压和心率升高,使动脉变细,动脉壁增厚,更容易发生血栓。It stresses your heart and sets you up for a heart attack or stroke.心脏压力增大,会增加心脏病或中风的风险。So there you have it – our top 10 natural ways to reduce your blood pressure without resorting to medication.以上就是我们总结的“自然降压10法”,无需借助药物。Of course if your doctor has prescribed tablets you should continue to take them and to attend your regular blood pressure monitoring sessions. They are important for your health!当然,若是医生给你开了药,还是不要放弃治疗,继续吃药、定期监测血压为好。 /201611/477268福州看女性不孕去哪里

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