The study found that the size of the entrées（前菜） in paintings of the Last Supper, which according to the New Testament occurred during a Passover（逾越节） evening, has progressively grown 69 percent; plate size has increased 66 percent and bread size by about 23 percent, over the past 1,000 years.
The growth and development of flies play an important role for scientists looking to learn how long a human or other animal has been dead. When a new species is introduced, scientists or investigators may be at a disadvantage because of the little data that exists locally on that species.
Galactan（半乳糖体） is a polymer of galactose（半乳糖）, a six-carbon sugar that can be readily fermented by yeast into ethanol（乙醇） and is a target of interest for researchers in advanced biofuels produced from cellulosic biomass. Now an international collaboration led by scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) has identified the first enzyme capable of substantially boosting the amount of galactan in plant cell walls. Unlike ethanol, advanced biofuels synthesized from the sugars in plant cells walls could replace gasoline, diesel and jet fuels on a gallon-for-gallon basis and be dropped into today's engines and infrastructures with no modifications required. Also, adanced biofuels have the potential to be carbon-neutral, meaning they could be burned without adding excess carbon to the atmosphere. Among the key challenges to making advanced biofuels cost competitive is finding ways to maximize the amount of plant cell wall sugars that can be fermented（发酵） into fuels.
The spacecraft data used for this study were gathered using three methods to measure the neutral interstellar helium wind direction: IBEX and Ulysses provided direct in situ measurements of the neutral wind; the earliest measurements from the 1970s used fluorescence of solar extreme ultraviolet radiation of the helium atoms near the Sun; and measurements also were included of the helium flow direction from ;pickup ions,; neutral particles in the solar system that become ionized near the Sun and join the solar wind.
Climate model simulations analyzed as part of the study revealed that the relationship between sea surface temperatures and atmospheric convection in the Indian Ocean changes rainfall in East Africa. Specifically, wet conditions in coastal East Africa are associated with cool sea surface temperatures in the eastern Indian Ocean and warm sea surface temperatures in the western Indian Ocean, which cause ascending atmospheric circulation over East Africa and enhanced rainfall. The opposite situation -- cold sea surface temperatures in the western Indian Ocean and warmer in the East -- causes drought. Such variations in sea-surface temperatures likely caused the historical fluctuations in rainfall seen in the paleorecord.
Aircraft landing gear supports the weight of the aircraft during landing and ground operations. In addition to their wheels, landing gear also have shock absorbing equipment or ;shock struts; as well as brakes, retraction mechanisms, controls, and structural entities that attach the gear to the aircraft.